Chapter 11: Forgetting Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Forgetting Deck (28)
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1
Q

Cue-dependent forgetting

A

Forgetting that results from the absence of cues that were present during training.

2
Q

Declarative memory

A

Memories that can be declared or expressed in words. Said to be knowing that. Also called explicit memory. (C’. nondeclarative memory.)

3
Q

Delayed matching to sample

A

A method of measuring forgetting in which the opportunity to match a sample follows a retention interval. Abbreviated DMTS.

4
Q

Episodic memory

A

Memory for personally experienced events. Also called autobiographical or event memory.

5
Q

Extinction method

A

A method of measuring forgetting by comparing the rate of extinction after a retention interval with the rate of extinction immediately after training.

6
Q

Fluency

A

Number of correct responses per minute. In general, a fluent performancee is smooth, accurate, and relatively rapid. Also called automaticity.

7
Q

Forgetting

A

Deterioration in learned behavior following a period without practice. (C’. extinction; reminiscence.)

8
Q

Free recall

A

A method of measuring forgetting that consists of providing the opportunity to perform the learned behavior. (C’. prompted recall.)

9
Q

Gradient degradation

A

A method of measuring forgetting in which a behavior is tested for generalization before and after a retention interval. A flattening of the generalization gradient indicates forgetting.

10
Q

Long-term memory

A

Memory for events following a retention interval longer than one minute and sometimes many years. (C’. short-term memory.)

11
Q

Method of loci

A

A mnemonic system in which each item to be recalled is placed in a distinctive spot in an imagined scene, such as a walking path.

12
Q

Mnemonic

A

Any technique for aiding recall.

13
Q

Mnemonic system

A

Any of several systems for aiding recall, including the method of loci and the peg word system.

14
Q

Nondeclarative memory

A

Memory that cannot be declared or expressed in words. Pavlovian conditioning is one example; another is procedural memory. Also called implicit memory.

15
Q

Overlearning

A

The continuation of training beyond the point required to produce one errorless performance.

16
Q

Paired associate learning

A

A learning task involving pairs of words or other stimuli in which the subject is presented with the first item of a pair and is expected to produce the second item.

17
Q

Peg word system

A

A mnemonic system in which each of the first n integers is associated with a particular image (a peg), and each item to be recalled is placed on a peg.

18
Q

Proactive interference

A

Forgetting caused by learning that occurred prior to the behavior in question.

19
Q

Procedural memory

A

Memory for procedures. Procedural memory is said to involve knowing how. It is a kind of nondeclarative or implicit memory. Popularly referred to as muscle memory, though the memory does not reside in muscles.

20
Q

Prompted, or cued, recall

A

A method of measuring forgetting in which hints (prompts) about the behavior to be performed are provided.

21
Q

Recognition

A

A method of measuring forgetting in which the subject is required to identify stimuli experienced earlier.

22
Q

Relearning method

A

A method of measuring forgetting in which a behavior is learned to criterion before and after a retention interval. Also called the savings method.

23
Q

Reminiscence

A

Improvement in performance following a retention interval.

24
Q

Retention interval

A

The time between training and testing for forgetting.

25
Q

Retroactive interference

A

Forgetting caused by learning that occurred subsequent to the behavior in question. (

26
Q

Semantic memory

A

Memory for information about the world. It is a kind of declarative memory.

27
Q

Short-term memory

A

Memory for events following a retention interval shorter than one minute, often a matter of seconds. C’. long-term memory.

28
Q

State-dependent learning

A

Learning that occurs during a particular physiological state (such as alcoholic intoxication) and is lost when that physiological state passes.