Chapter 11 - Group Influence and Opinion Leadership Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Group Influence and Opinion Leadership Deck (56):
1

What is the reference group?

So when looking how people have significant relevant upon someone's evaluations, aspirations, or behaviour, these are those people.

They are the actual or imaginary individual/group who have that significant relevant upon their evaluations, aspirations or behaviour

2

Reference groups influences consumers in what three ways?

1. Informational
2. Utilitarian
3. Value-expressive

3

What are some examples of reference groups who are external influences that provide social clues?

1. Cultural Figures
2. Parents
3. Large, formal organization such as WHO
4. Small and informal groups such as a group of friends

4

Out of some of the big references groups such as cultural figures, parents, large organizations, and small informal groups. Which exerts a more powerful influence on individual consumers?

The small informal groups exert a more powerful influence than large organizations to individual consumers

This is the rule of Formal vs informal reference groups

5

What are the two types of reference group influences?

1. Normative Influence
(this is what helps set and enforce the fundamental standards of conduct)

2. Comparative Influence
(these are what influence decisions about specific brands or activities)

6

What do brand communities share?

emotions, moral beliefs, styles of life, affiliated product

7

What three things characterize brand communities?

1. Brand Loyalty
2. Brandfests enhance brand loyalty
3. Brand Missionaries

8

Compare membership versus aspirational reference groups

Membership reference groups are where the consumer actually knows the people, whereas aspirational reference groups is where the consumer doesn't know the people but they admire them

9

What do aspirational reference group strategies concentrate on?

Aspirational strategies concentrate on highly visible, widely admired figures (athletes or performers)

10

What do Membership reference group strategies concentrate on?

Membership strategies focus on “ordinary” people whose consumption provides informational social influence

-propinquity
-mere exposure
-group cohesiveness

11

What are dissociative reference groups?

How do marketers do this?

These reference groups actually motivate each other to distance the consumer from other people/groups.

Marketers show ads with undesirable people using competitors product

12

What are antibrand communities?

These reference groups coalesce around a celebrity, store, or brand united in their hatred for it.

Usually social idealist who advocate against materialistic lifestyles, and they oppose companies like Walmart, Starbucks, McDonalds, etc

13

What are the two dimensions of influence that make reference groups important or not?

1. Purchase to be consumer privately or publicly
(Socially conspicuous products make reference groups more important)

2. Whether a luxury or a necessity
(luxury goods make reference groups more important for purchase)

14

What is the big power of reference groups?

What are the 6 types of this power?

Social Power! Which is the capacity to alter the actions of others

The 6 types are:
1. Referent Power
2. Legitimate Power
3. Reward Power
4. Information Power
5. Expert Power
6. Coercive Power

15

What is a change in beliefs or actions as a reactions to real or imagined group pressure?

Conformity

16

What are 5 factors influencing conformity?

1. Cultural pressures
2. Fear of deviance
3. Commitment to group
4. Group unanimity, size, expertise
5. Susceptibility to interpersonal influence

17

What is social comparison theory?

This is when we look to others behaviour to inform us about what is reality.

This is like what we talked about in OB, we use this to increase stability of our own self concept and mental models, so we tend to choose co-oriented peer when performing social comparison

18

What are the 3 tactical requests?

When people want others to conform, they can use one of these tactical requests:

1. Foot in door technique
(small favour then hit them for something bigger)

2. Low-ball technique
(ask for small favour that becomes costly)

3. Door in the face technique
(ask something extreme, and after refusal ask for a smaller more reasonable request)

19

Why are home shopping parties and botox parties successful?

Because it is based on informational and normative social influence

It deindividualizes the situation to a group setting, and the risk is shifted so that the decision is easier to make

20

What is deindividuation?

This is when individual identities become submerged within a group, such as binge drinking at college parties, or tupperware parties for shopping

21

What is social loafing?

When people don't put as much effort into a task because it is just a contribution as part of larger group

22

What is Risky Shift?

This is when group members show greater willingness to consider riskier alternatives following group discussion than if members decide alone.

23

What are the three things that groups have effect on that influence decisions?

1. Deindividuation
2. Social loafing
3. Risky Shift

24

What are the 5 roles with group decision making?

1. Initiator (identifies need)
2. Gatekeeper (searches and controls information)
3. Influencer (uses power to sway the decision)
4. Buyer (the purchaser, but not necessarily user)
5. User (the consumer/user of the product)

25

What are the 3 ways people resist conformity?

1. Anti-conformity
(defiance of the group is actual object of behaviour)

2. Independence
(Takes pride in unique style)

3. Reactance
(When there are threats of censoring something such as a book or tv show because people find it objectionable, it actually results in an increase desire for these items)

26

Opinion leaders influence other's attitudes and behaviours in what 6 ways?

1. technically competent
2. Knowledge power
3. Socially active, highly interconnected
4. Similar to consumer
5. Often first to buy
6. Hands-on-experience

27

What are the two main types of knowledge opinion leaders?

Generalize opinion leaders versus monomorphic/polymorphic experts

Expertise for products tends to overlap across similar categories, and it is rare to find a generalized opinion leader

28

Who are opinion seekers?

These guys like to talk about products with others and solicit other opinions by casual interaction prompted by a situation

29

Opinion leaders are what type of communicators?

Opinion leaders are innovative communicators

30

What is the Market Maven?

The market maven is actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types.

So these are just into shopping and know whats happening in marketplace, they have an overall knowledge of how and where to get products

31

What are surrogate consumers Market Mavens?

These guys are hired to provide input into purchase decision

32

Many ads are actually intended to reach influencers rather than average consumer. Give 3 reasons why.

1. Local opinion leaders are harder to find

2. Companies try to identity influencers to create WOM ripple effect

3. Exploratory studies identity characteristics of opinion leaders for promotional strategies

33

What is the most commonly used technique to identify opinion leaders?

The Self Designating Method

34

What is the self designating method?

This is where you simply ask individuals whether they consider themselves to be opinion leaders, and the answer is viewed with skepticism of course to see if the consumer is inflating or unaware of own importance/influence

35

What is the alternative to the self-designating method?

Instead of asking if they are opinion leaders, ask key informant to identity opinion leaders

36

What is the most precise method of identifying product information sources, but is very difficult and expensive to implement?

Sociomestic methods of tracing communication patterns among group members. So it makes a systematic map of group interactions

Network analysis, to see referral behaviour tie strength, and bridging function to see strength of weak ties

37

How much sales does WOM influence?

Word of mouth influences two thirds of all sales

38

At what stage of product adoption do we rely on WOM?

In later stages of product adoption, it is powerful when we are unaware of product category.

39

What is P&G's Tremor?

These are youth recruited to act as brand influencers.

This is classic Buzz marketing

40

For social networks, define these:

Social Networks
Nodes
Ties

Social Networks: Social Graphs

Nodes: Members in a network
Ties: Relationship among nodes

41

Nodes have what two things?

Interactions
(behaviour based ties)

Flows
(exchange of information and influence)

42

For social networks, define these:

Media Multiplexity
Social Object Theory
Object Sociality

Media Multiplexity: Flows are in many directions
Social Object Theory: Objects of common interest
Object Sociality: Extent objects can be shared

43

What is the difference between virtual community of consumption and virtual world communities?

Virtual community of consumption is common love of product where you remain anonymous and SM provides connection.

Virtual world communities is where you have presence and collective interest in things. There are behaviours such sa flaming, and levels of participation such as lurkers. Reddit is a great example of this

44

Reference groups influence consumers in what three ways?

1. Informational

2. utilitarian

3. Value-Expressive

45

What is normative influence?

Like parents and friends really set standards for how we conduct ourselves

46

What is referent power?

Based on admiration of an individual or group

47

Legitimate power?

So giving a guy with a lab coat and stethoscope to sell our new drug on tv. Because we give him legitimate power as a doctor

48

What is coercive power?

So in the short term such as an intimidating salesperson. No permanent change in attitude or behaviour

49

What is the Milgram experiment?

Milgram experiments in America and Germany. So you sign up and go to the broadcast studio. You meet a innocent looking person, and your told this is an experiment about learning. So your told you have to punish someone to help them learn if they do it wrong, and reward if they get it right. Shock is the punishment.

You get strapped to the table, and have a little shock to see what the other guy is going to experience.

So when it starts, you start with only a little electricity and then you ramp up, and there are severe shocks, xxx and whatnot labeled on the switchboard.

So when do you disobey the experimenter?

100% of the students did, 65% of the people did. So the conclusion is that people conform, so Hitler tells them to do it and they do.

50

What are factors influencing conformity?

1. Cultural pressures

2. Fear of deviance
(we sanction different behaviour)

3. Commitment to group membership
(like gang initiation)

4. Group unanimity, size, expertise

5. Susceptibility to interpersonal influence
(role relaxed, do you care what others think?)

51

Independence vs. anti conformity?

independence is when you really march to your own drum. Anti conformity are like paradoxs, because they are group that conforms to being opposite of conformity

52

What is reactance?

This is the negative emotional state when we are deprived of our freedom of choice. So we calmer more for censored books, banned tv shows, etc

53

Who is the surrogate consumer?

This is a marketing intermediary who is hired to provide input into purchase decisions such as interior decorators, stockbrokers etc

So the consumer relinquishes control over decision making functions.

MARKETERS SHOULD NOT OVERLOOK INFLUENCE OF THESE PEOPLE

54

How does WOM make for a more reliable trustworthy form of marketing?

It gives us social pressure to conform and purchase. So if we see an ad, meh maybe. If 3 friends or reddit tells me to purchase something, I am more likely to buy it!

55

What is object sociality?

The extent to which an object can be shared in social media, is related to an audiences unique interests.

So now you can play games with people on your Social network, or can share photos on twitter where you couldn't before

56

Interactive platforms enable online communities to exhibit what 4 basic characteristics?`

1. Conversations
(hybrid of talking and writing)

2. Presence
(effect it has on people, so email has little, Skype has lots)

3. Collective Interests
(bonds among community members)

4. Democracy
(leaders emerge due to reputation they earn such as Jenna Marbles)

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