Chapter 11 - Group Influence and Opinion Leadership Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Group Influence and Opinion Leadership Deck (56):

What is the reference group?

So when looking how people have significant relevant upon someone's evaluations, aspirations, or behaviour, these are those people.

They are the actual or imaginary individual/group who have that significant relevant upon their evaluations, aspirations or behaviour


Reference groups influences consumers in what three ways?

1. Informational
2. Utilitarian
3. Value-expressive


What are some examples of reference groups who are external influences that provide social clues?

1. Cultural Figures
2. Parents
3. Large, formal organization such as WHO
4. Small and informal groups such as a group of friends


Out of some of the big references groups such as cultural figures, parents, large organizations, and small informal groups. Which exerts a more powerful influence on individual consumers?

The small informal groups exert a more powerful influence than large organizations to individual consumers

This is the rule of Formal vs informal reference groups


What are the two types of reference group influences?

1. Normative Influence
(this is what helps set and enforce the fundamental standards of conduct)

2. Comparative Influence
(these are what influence decisions about specific brands or activities)


What do brand communities share?

emotions, moral beliefs, styles of life, affiliated product


What three things characterize brand communities?

1. Brand Loyalty
2. Brandfests enhance brand loyalty
3. Brand Missionaries


Compare membership versus aspirational reference groups

Membership reference groups are where the consumer actually knows the people, whereas aspirational reference groups is where the consumer doesn't know the people but they admire them


What do aspirational reference group strategies concentrate on?

Aspirational strategies concentrate on highly visible, widely admired figures (athletes or performers)


What do Membership reference group strategies concentrate on?

Membership strategies focus on “ordinary” people whose consumption provides informational social influence

-mere exposure
-group cohesiveness


What are dissociative reference groups?

How do marketers do this?

These reference groups actually motivate each other to distance the consumer from other people/groups.

Marketers show ads with undesirable people using competitors product


What are antibrand communities?

These reference groups coalesce around a celebrity, store, or brand united in their hatred for it.

Usually social idealist who advocate against materialistic lifestyles, and they oppose companies like Walmart, Starbucks, McDonalds, etc


What are the two dimensions of influence that make reference groups important or not?

1. Purchase to be consumer privately or publicly
(Socially conspicuous products make reference groups more important)

2. Whether a luxury or a necessity
(luxury goods make reference groups more important for purchase)


What is the big power of reference groups?

What are the 6 types of this power?

Social Power! Which is the capacity to alter the actions of others

The 6 types are:
1. Referent Power
2. Legitimate Power
3. Reward Power
4. Information Power
5. Expert Power
6. Coercive Power


What is a change in beliefs or actions as a reactions to real or imagined group pressure?



What are 5 factors influencing conformity?

1. Cultural pressures
2. Fear of deviance
3. Commitment to group
4. Group unanimity, size, expertise
5. Susceptibility to interpersonal influence


What is social comparison theory?

This is when we look to others behaviour to inform us about what is reality.

This is like what we talked about in OB, we use this to increase stability of our own self concept and mental models, so we tend to choose co-oriented peer when performing social comparison


What are the 3 tactical requests?

When people want others to conform, they can use one of these tactical requests:

1. Foot in door technique
(small favour then hit them for something bigger)

2. Low-ball technique
(ask for small favour that becomes costly)

3. Door in the face technique
(ask something extreme, and after refusal ask for a smaller more reasonable request)


Why are home shopping parties and botox parties successful?

Because it is based on informational and normative social influence

It deindividualizes the situation to a group setting, and the risk is shifted so that the decision is easier to make


What is deindividuation?

This is when individual identities become submerged within a group, such as binge drinking at college parties, or tupperware parties for shopping


What is social loafing?

When people don't put as much effort into a task because it is just a contribution as part of larger group


What is Risky Shift?

This is when group members show greater willingness to consider riskier alternatives following group discussion than if members decide alone.


What are the three things that groups have effect on that influence decisions?

1. Deindividuation
2. Social loafing
3. Risky Shift


What are the 5 roles with group decision making?

1. Initiator (identifies need)
2. Gatekeeper (searches and controls information)
3. Influencer (uses power to sway the decision)
4. Buyer (the purchaser, but not necessarily user)
5. User (the consumer/user of the product)


What are the 3 ways people resist conformity?

1. Anti-conformity
(defiance of the group is actual object of behaviour)

2. Independence
(Takes pride in unique style)

3. Reactance
(When there are threats of censoring something such as a book or tv show because people find it objectionable, it actually results in an increase desire for these items)


Opinion leaders influence other's attitudes and behaviours in what 6 ways?

1. technically competent
2. Knowledge power
3. Socially active, highly interconnected
4. Similar to consumer
5. Often first to buy
6. Hands-on-experience


What are the two main types of knowledge opinion leaders?

Generalize opinion leaders versus monomorphic/polymorphic experts

Expertise for products tends to overlap across similar categories, and it is rare to find a generalized opinion leader


Who are opinion seekers?

These guys like to talk about products with others and solicit other opinions by casual interaction prompted by a situation


Opinion leaders are what type of communicators?

Opinion leaders are innovative communicators


What is the Market Maven?

The market maven is actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types.

So these are just into shopping and know whats happening in marketplace, they have an overall knowledge of how and where to get products


What are surrogate consumers Market Mavens?

These guys are hired to provide input into purchase decision


Many ads are actually intended to reach influencers rather than average consumer. Give 3 reasons why.

1. Local opinion leaders are harder to find

2. Companies try to identity influencers to create WOM ripple effect

3. Exploratory studies identity characteristics of opinion leaders for promotional strategies


What is the most commonly used technique to identify opinion leaders?

The Self Designating Method


What is the self designating method?

This is where you simply ask individuals whether they consider themselves to be opinion leaders, and the answer is viewed with skepticism of course to see if the consumer is inflating or unaware of own importance/influence


What is the alternative to the self-designating method?

Instead of asking if they are opinion leaders, ask key informant to identity opinion leaders


What is the most precise method of identifying product information sources, but is very difficult and expensive to implement?

Sociomestic methods of tracing communication patterns among group members. So it makes a systematic map of group interactions

Network analysis, to see referral behaviour tie strength, and bridging function to see strength of weak ties


How much sales does WOM influence?

Word of mouth influences two thirds of all sales


At what stage of product adoption do we rely on WOM?

In later stages of product adoption, it is powerful when we are unaware of product category.


What is P&G's Tremor?

These are youth recruited to act as brand influencers.

This is classic Buzz marketing


For social networks, define these:

Social Networks

Social Networks: Social Graphs

Nodes: Members in a network
Ties: Relationship among nodes


Nodes have what two things?

(behaviour based ties)

(exchange of information and influence)


For social networks, define these:

Media Multiplexity
Social Object Theory
Object Sociality

Media Multiplexity: Flows are in many directions
Social Object Theory: Objects of common interest
Object Sociality: Extent objects can be shared


What is the difference between virtual community of consumption and virtual world communities?

Virtual community of consumption is common love of product where you remain anonymous and SM provides connection.

Virtual world communities is where you have presence and collective interest in things. There are behaviours such sa flaming, and levels of participation such as lurkers. Reddit is a great example of this


Reference groups influence consumers in what three ways?

1. Informational

2. utilitarian

3. Value-Expressive


What is normative influence?

Like parents and friends really set standards for how we conduct ourselves


What is referent power?

Based on admiration of an individual or group


Legitimate power?

So giving a guy with a lab coat and stethoscope to sell our new drug on tv. Because we give him legitimate power as a doctor


What is coercive power?

So in the short term such as an intimidating salesperson. No permanent change in attitude or behaviour


What is the Milgram experiment?

Milgram experiments in America and Germany. So you sign up and go to the broadcast studio. You meet a innocent looking person, and your told this is an experiment about learning. So your told you have to punish someone to help them learn if they do it wrong, and reward if they get it right. Shock is the punishment.

You get strapped to the table, and have a little shock to see what the other guy is going to experience.

So when it starts, you start with only a little electricity and then you ramp up, and there are severe shocks, xxx and whatnot labeled on the switchboard.

So when do you disobey the experimenter?

100% of the students did, 65% of the people did. So the conclusion is that people conform, so Hitler tells them to do it and they do.


What are factors influencing conformity?

1. Cultural pressures

2. Fear of deviance
(we sanction different behaviour)

3. Commitment to group membership
(like gang initiation)

4. Group unanimity, size, expertise

5. Susceptibility to interpersonal influence
(role relaxed, do you care what others think?)


Independence vs. anti conformity?

independence is when you really march to your own drum. Anti conformity are like paradoxs, because they are group that conforms to being opposite of conformity


What is reactance?

This is the negative emotional state when we are deprived of our freedom of choice. So we calmer more for censored books, banned tv shows, etc


Who is the surrogate consumer?

This is a marketing intermediary who is hired to provide input into purchase decisions such as interior decorators, stockbrokers etc

So the consumer relinquishes control over decision making functions.



How does WOM make for a more reliable trustworthy form of marketing?

It gives us social pressure to conform and purchase. So if we see an ad, meh maybe. If 3 friends or reddit tells me to purchase something, I am more likely to buy it!


What is object sociality?

The extent to which an object can be shared in social media, is related to an audiences unique interests.

So now you can play games with people on your Social network, or can share photos on twitter where you couldn't before


Interactive platforms enable online communities to exhibit what 4 basic characteristics?`

1. Conversations
(hybrid of talking and writing)

2. Presence
(effect it has on people, so email has little, Skype has lots)

3. Collective Interests
(bonds among community members)

4. Democracy
(leaders emerge due to reputation they earn such as Jenna Marbles)

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