Chapter 11 How Does the Nervous System Respond to Stimulation and Produce Movement? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 How Does the Nervous System Respond to Stimulation and Produce Movement? Deck (100):
1

An example of a brain–computer interface (BCI) would be:
A) using only your thoughts to control a computer keyboard.
B) having electrical signals from an electronic device influence brain function.
C) having your thoughts relayed to someone else’s brain via a computer.
D) None of the answers is correct.

A) using only your thoughts to control a computer keyboard.

2

The ______ controls the force of a movement, whereas the ______ controls the timing and accuracy of the movement.
A) motor cortex; basal ganglia
B) basal ganglia; motor cortex
C) basal ganglia; cerebellum
D) cerebellum; basal ganglia

C) basal ganglia; cerebellum

3

Which part of the brain is responsible for planning and initiating movements?
A) frontal lobe
B) hippocampus
C) basal ganglia
D) cerebellum

A) frontal lobe

4

The ventral side of the spinal cord ______, whereas the dorsal portion ______.
A) relays motor signals; relays sensory signals
B) relays sensory signals; relays motor signals
C) controls reflexive movements; controls intentional movements
D) controls balance; controls walking

A) relays motor signals; relays sensory signals

5

The arms are controlled by motor neurons in ______ levels of the spinal cord, whereas the legs are controlled by motor neurons in ______ levels of the spinal cord.
A) cervical; thoracic
B) lumbar; sacral
C) cervical; lumbar
D) thoracic; lumbar

C) cervical; lumbar

6

Signals from motor cortex to the spinal cord are transmitted via cortical layer(s):
A) 1 to 3
B) 2 to 4
C) 4
D) 5 to 6

D) 5 to 6

7

The prefrontal cortex is responsible for:
A) planning movements.
B) organizing movement sequences.
C) producing specific movements.
D) inhibiting spontaneous movements.

A) planning movements.

8

The premotor cortex is responsible for:
A) planning movements.
B) producing specific movements.
C) producing movement sequences.
D) inhibiting spontaneous movements.

C) producing movement sequences

9

The primary motor cortex is responsible for:
A) planning movements.
B) organizing movement sequences.
C) producing specific movements.
D) inhibiting spontaneous movements.

C) producing specific movements

10

In a person performing a sequence of finger movements, cerebral blood flow increases in the:
A) primary motor cortex.
B) temporal cortex.
C) premotor cortex.
D) cingulate cortex.

C) premotor cortex

11

The decision to set your alarm an hour early so as not to be late for your exam would be made in the:
A) prefrontal cortex.
B) primary motor cortex.
C) premotor cortex.
D) basal ganglia.

C) premotor cortex

12

Coordinating multiple simultaneous movements to accomplish a goal is a function of the:
A) primary motor cortex.
B) premotor cortex.
C) prefrontal cortex.
D) cerebellum.

B) premotor cortex

13

Neurons that fire when we execute a movement and when we observe another person making the same movement are referred to as:
A) visuomotor neurons.
B) bimodal neurons.
C) mirror neurons.
D) multisensory neurons.

C) mirror neurons

14

Mirror neurons are found in the:
A) premotor cortex.
B) parietal cortex.
C) cerebellum.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

15

Walter Hess’s experiments reveal that one of the functions of the brainstem is to:
A) regulate blood osmolarity.
B) regulate breathing and heart rates.
C) produce species-typical behavior.
D) produce behavior common across all species.

C) produce species-typical behavior

16

Locked-in syndrome can occur following damage to the:
A) prefrontal cortex.
B) brainstem.
C) cerebellum.
D) primary motor cortex.

B) brainstem

17

Damage to the brainstem can result in:
A) locked-in syndrome.
B) cerebral palsy.
C) both locked-in syndrome and cerebral palsy.
D) tardive dyskinesia.

C) both locked-in syndrome and cerebral palsy

18

Damage to level C1–C2 of the spinal cord would likely result in:
A) paraplegia.
B) quadriplegia.
C) hemiplegia.
D) numbness in the legs.

B) quadriplegia

19

Injury to level L1–L2 of the spinal cord would likely result in:
A) paraplegia.
B) quadriplegia.
C) hemiplegia.
D) numbness in the legs.
Ans: C

C) hemiplegia

20

The spinal cord functions in:
A) conveying sensory and motor information between the brain and body.
B) reflexive behaviors.
C) walking.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

21

The first direct evidence that the cortex controls movement was provided by:
A) Wilder Penfield.
B) Paul Broca.
C) Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig.
D) John Hughlings-Jackson.

C) Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig

22

Wilder Penfield identified a motor homunculus in the:
A) primary motor cortex.
B) prefrontal cortex.
C) premotor cortex.
D) primary motor cortex and the premotor cortex.

D) primary motor cortex and the premotor cortex

23

A homunculus is:
A) a representation of the body in motor cortex.
B) a representation of the body in sensory cortex.
C) a representation of the body in sensory and motor cortex.
D) a strange tiny person with large hands.

C) a representation of the body in sensory and motor cortex

24

On the motor homunculus:
A) all muscles are given equal representation.
B) an inverse relation exists between space allocated on the homunculus and motor control.
C) areas of precise motor control are given a larger representation.
D) no clear relation exists between movement precision and the amount of area allocated on the
motor cortex.

C) areas of precise motor control are given a larger representation

25

The person most credited with mapping the human motor cortex was:
A) Gustave Fritsch.
B) Eduard Hitzig.
C) Roberts Bartholow.
D) Wilder Penfield.

D) Wilder Penfield

26

Which of the following sequences is in the correct order from largest to smallest representation in the motor homunculus?
A) feet, hands, lips
B) hands, feet, lips
C) hands, lips, feet
D) lips, feet, hands

C) hands, lips, feet

27

Early research on the motor cortex suggested that it ______; however, more recent work suggests that the motor cortex may actually ______.
A) controlled individual muscle movements; store a repertoire of movement categories
B) stored a repertoire of movement categories; control individual muscle movements
C) controlled only reflexive movements; control both reflexive and voluntary movement
D) control only learned movements; control both learned and innate movements

A) controlled individual muscle movements; store a repertoire of movement categories

28

The sensory and motor cortices are:
A) stable neocortical areas that are fixed in function after birth.
B) stable neocortical areas that are fixed in function after puberty.
C) changed only in response to damage.
D) continuously modified with learning and experience.

D) continuously modified with learning and experience

29

Neurons in the primary motor cortex:
A) start to discharge just prior to a movement.
B) discharge during a movement.
C) increase their rate of firing if a weight is added to the movement apparatus.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

30

Motor cortex is activated when a person:
A) plans a movement.
B) imagines making a movement.
C) executes a movement.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

31

The major motor pathway that relays signals from the primary motor cortex to the spinal cord is the:
A) rubrospinal tract.
B) tectospinal tract.
C) corticospinal tract.
D) pontospinal tract.

C) corticospinal tract

32

The ______ controls limbs and digits, whereas the ______ controls mainly trunk muscles.
A) lateral corticospinal tract; ventral corticospinal tract
B) ventral corticospinal tract; lateral corticospinal tract
C) rubrospinal tract; lateral corticospinal tract
D) lateral corticospinal tract; tectospinal tract

A) lateral corticospinal tract; ventral corticospinal tract

33

Neurons from the corticospinal tract synapse with:
A) motor neurons.
B) interneurons.
C) sensory neurons.
D) both motor neurons and interneurons.

D) both motor neurons and interneurons

34

In the spinal cord, laterally located motor neurons project to the ______, whereas more medially located motor neurons project to the ______.
A) trunk; limbs and digits
B) limbs; trunk and feet
C) arms; legs
D) limbs and digits; trunk and shoulders

D) limbs and digits; trunk and shoulders

35

The limb regions of the motor homunculus are involved in activating motor neurons that move the arms, hands, and legs primarily on the ______, and the trunk regions of the motor homunculus are mainly involved in activating motor neurons that move the trunk primarily on the ______.
A) same side of the body; opposite side of the body
B) opposite side of the body; same side of the body
C) same side of the body; same side of the body
D) opposite side of the body; opposite side of the body

B) opposite side of the body; same side of the body

36

Neurons in the ventral corticospinal tract in the left hemisphere control ______ muscles on ______ of the body
A) limb; the right side
B) trunk; the right side
C) trunk; both sides
D) limb; both sides

C) trunk; both sides

37

What constitutes the “final common path”?
A) sensory neurons
B) muscles
C) motor neurons
D) the corticospinal tract

C) motor neurons

38

______ muscles move the limb away from the trunk, whereas ______ muscles move the limb back toward the trunk.
A) Extensor; flexor
B) Flexor; extensor
C) Dorsal; ventral
D) Medial; lateral

A) Extensor; flexor

39

In all animals, a large proportion of the motor cortex is represented by:
A) the tongue and paws or hands.
B) the arms, legs, and other large muscle groups.
C) no single area. There is equal representation of all muscles.
D) muscles over which an animal has skilled and intricate control.

D) muscles over which an animal has skilled and intricate control

40

Which of the following is not a part of the basal ganglia?
A) flocculus
B) amygdala
C) caudate
D) putamen

A) flocculus

41

Which region(s) of the cortex project to the basal ganglia?
A) the frontal cortex
B) the temporal cortex
C) the parietal cortex
D) All areas of the cortex project to the basal ganglia.

D) All areas of the cortex project to the basal ganglia

42

Which of the following is not part of the direct pathway of the basal ganglia?
A) the caudate nucleus.
B) the globus pallidus external.
C) the globus pallidus internal.
D) the putamen.

B) the globus pallidus external

43

Which of the following structures is not part of the indirect pathway in the basal ganglia?
A) the globus pallidus internal.
B) the putamen.
C) the caudate nucleus.
D) the subthalamic nucleus.

B) the putamen

44

The neurotransmitter system that is most important for basal ganglia function is the:
A) nigrostriatal dopamine system.
B) mesolimbic dopamine system.
C) acetylcholine system.
D) norepinephrine system.

A) nigrostriatal dopamine system

45

Damage to the ______ results in ______.
A) substantia nigra; Huntington’s disease
B) caudate nucleus; Huntington’s disease
C) caudate nucleus; Parkinson’s disease
D) putamen; Parkinson’s disease

B) caudate nucleus; Huntington’s disease

46

If cells of the caudate putamen are damaged, which one of the following motor disorders will be observed?
A) hypokinetic behavior
B) isokinetic behavior
C) hydrokinetic behavior
D) mesokinetic behavior

A) hypokinetic behavior

47

In the basal ganglia, excitation is to ______ as inhibition is to ______.
A) putamen; globus pallidus
B) direct pathway; indirect pathway
C) indirect pathway; direct pathway
D) subthalamic nucleus; thalamus

B) direct pathway; indirect pathway

48

The ______ contributes to motor control by adjusting the forces associated with movements, while the ______ compares the intended movement with actual movement for the improvement of movement skill.
A) motor cortex; cerebellum
B) cerebellum; basal ganglia
C) basal ganglia; motor cortex
D) basal ganglia; cerebellum

D) basal ganglia; cerebellum

49

Which of the following is not associated with Tourette’s syndrome?
A) motor tics (e.g., hitting, jumping).
B) unwanted cries and vocalizations.
C) excessive levels of dopamine.
D) hypokinetic symptoms.

D) hypokinetic symptoms

50

_____ are commonly used as a treatment for Tourette’s syndrome.
A) SSRIs
B) Antipsychotics
C) Both SSRIs and antipsychotics
D) MAO inhibitors

B) Antipsychotics

51

Brain imaging studies have noted decreased connectivity between ______ in patients with Tourette’s syndrome.
A) temporal cortex and frontal cortex
B) frontal cortex and parietal cortex
C) occipital cortex and parietal cortex
D) None of these answers is correct.

B) frontal cortex and parietal cortex

52

The globus pallidus is an internal component of the basal ganglia that is involved with:
A) skilled motor movements.
B) determining whether a movement will be weak or strong.
C) species-specific behaviors.
D) involuntary motor behaviors.

B) determining whether a movement will be weak or strong

53

Parkinson’s disease can be treated by:
A) lesioning the globus pallidus internal.
B) lesioning the globus pallidus external.
C) stimulating the globus pallidus internal.
D) by either lesioning or stimulating the globus pallidus internal.

D) by either lesioning or stimulating the globus pallidus internal

54

Cellular recordings from the globus pallidus internal in patients with Parkinson’s disease show:
A) excessive activity.
B) underactivity.
C) no activity.
D) intermittent spikes of activity.

A) excessive activity

55

The flocculus of the cerebellum is involved with:
A) control of balance and eye movements.
B) control over the face and midline of the body.
C) gross limb movements.
D) fine finger and hand movements.

A) control of balance and eye movements

56

The lateral parts of the cerebellar hemispheres control:
A) movement of the body midline.
B) movement of limbs and digits.
C) eye movements.
D) balance

B) movement of limbs and digits

57

The cerebellum consists of _____ distinct layer(s).
A) one
B) two
C) three
D) six

C) three

58

______ are the primary output cells of the cerebellum.
A) Purkinje cells
B) Basket cells
C) Stellate cells
D) Pyramidal cells

A) Purkinje cells

59

A tumor or damage to the midline of the cerebellum seriously disrupts:
A) balance.
B) eye movements.
C) upright posture.
D) balance, eye movements, and upright posture.

D) balance, eye movements, and upright posture

60

The cerebellum’s role in motor behavior is primarily involved with:
A) timing of movements and maintaining movement accuracy.
B) initiating movements and timing of movements.
C) maintaining movement accuracy and initiating movements.
D) All of the answers are correct.

A) timing of movements and maintaining movement accuracy

61

If a patient with cerebellar damage is asked to throw darts while wearing a pair of glasses that shift the vision to the right, the patient will most likely:
A) learn to adjust movements leftward to compensate for the visual shift.
B) begin throwing farther and farther to the right on successive throws.
C) fail to show any adaptation to compensate for the visual shift.
D) learn to adjust movements rightward to compensate for the visual shift.

C) fail to show any adaptation to compensate for the visual shift

62

The motor system sends a copy of the “instructions” for a movement to the cerebellum via the:
A) inferior olive.
B) superior olive.
C) basal ganglia.
D) thalamus.

A) inferior olive

63

To which of the following systems is the somatosensory system most closely linked?
A) visual
B) auditory
C) motor
D) It is equally linked to visual, auditory, and motor systems.

C) motor

64

______ skin is much more richly endowed with receptors and is exquisitely more sensitive to a wider range of stimuli than ______ skin.
A) Glabrous; hairy
B) Smooth; glabrous
C) Smooth; hairy
D) Hairy; glabrous

A) Glabrous; hairy

65

The ability to discriminate the distance between two points on the skin is most sensitive in:
A) hairy skin.
B) glabrous skin.
C) smooth skin.
D) epidermal skin.

B) glabrous skin

66

Which of the following receptors is most responsive to pain and temperature?
A) Pacinian corpuscles
B) free nerve endings
C) Golgi tendon organs
D) dendrites of alpha motor neurons

B) free nerve endings

67

Vibration is detected by:
A) Pacinian corpuscles.
B) Merkel receptors.
C) Ruffini corpuscles
D) Meissner corpuscles.

B) Merkel receptors

68

______ are critical for proprioception.
A) Muscle spindles
B) Golgi tendon organs
C) Joint receptors
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

69

Nociception is the perception of:
A) fine touch.
B) the location of one’s body in space.
C) pain.
D) noise.

C) pain

70

Pacinian corpuscles are most responsive to:
A) movements of tendons.
B) pain and temperature.
C) pressure and flutter stimuli.
D) movement of tendons and pressure.

C) pressure and flutter stimuli

71

Hapsis is the perception of:
A) fine touch.
B) the location of one’s body in space.
C) pain.
D) chemical irritants.

A) fine touch

72

Proprioception is the perception of:
A) fine touch.
B) the location of one’s body in space.
C) pain.
D) chemical irritants.

B) the location of one’s body in space

73

The three major classes of sensory receptors are:
A) nociception, hapsis, proprioception.
B) flocculoception, nociception, hapsis.
C) stasisception, nociception, proprioception.
D) flocculoception, nociception, proprioception.

A) nociception, hapsis, proprioception

74

Which of the following receptors are rapidly adapting receptors?
A) Meissner corpuscles
B) Pacinian corpuscles
C) Ruffini corpuscles
D) All of these are rapidly accepting receptors

D) All of these are rapidly accepting receptors

75

Which of the following receptors are slowly adapting receptors?
A) Meissner corpuscles
B) Merkel receptors
C) Ruffini corpuscles
D) Pacinian corpuscles

B) Merkel receptors

76

Somatosensory information is carried from the body to the CNS by the:
A) ventral-root ganglion neurons.
B) dorsal-root ganglion neurons.
C) gamma somatosensory neurons.
D) corticospinal tract.

B) dorsal-root ganglion neurons

77

The haptic and proprioceptive axons form the:
A) dorsal spinothalamic tract.
B) ventral spinothalamic tract.
C) caudal spinothalamic tract.
D) rostral spinothalamic tract.

A) dorsal spinothalamic tract

78

Information from the ______ crosses to the other side of the brain in the brainstem, whereas the ______ crosses to the other side of the brain in the spinal cord.
A) ventral spinothalamic tract; dorsal spinothalamic tract
B) dorsal spinothalamic tract; ventral spinothalamic tract
C) lateral spinothalamic tract; medial spinothalamic tract
D) medial spinothalamic tract; medial spinothalamic tract

B) dorsal spinothalamic tract; ventral spinothalamic tract

79

Axons that carry information about pain and temperature form the:
A) dorsal spinothalamic tract.
B) ventral spinothalamic tract.
C) caudal spinothalamic tract.
D) rostral spinothalamic tract.

B) ventral spinothalamic tract

80

Both the dorsal and ventral spinothalamic tracts send their signals to the ______ nucleus of the thalamus.
A) ventrolateral
B) ventromedial
C) mediodorsal
D) lateral geniculate

A) ventrolateral

81

Unilateral damage to the spinal cord will result in the loss of ______ on the same side of the body and loss of ______ on the opposite side of the body below the site of the damage.
A) touch and proprioception; pain and temperature
B) pain and temperature; touch and proprioception
C) pain and touch; temperature and proprioception
D) temperature and touch; pain and proprioception

A) touch and proprioception; pain and temperature

82

When a physician taps the patellar tendon with a hammer, it causes a knee jerk reflex by sending stretch signals to:
A) motor neurons in the spinal cord that cause muscles to contract.
B) motor neurons in the cortex that cause muscles to contract.
C) the thalamus, which sends signals to motor neurons to contract.
D) the cerebellum, which sends signals to motor neurons to contract.

A) motor neurons in the spinal cord that cause muscles to contract

83

Research has demonstrated that phantom limb pain can be alleviated through the use of:
A) further amputation.
B) destroying remaining nerves in the limb stump.
C) using a mirror to fool the sensory system into perceiving the missing limb.
D) All of the answers are correct.

C) using a mirror to fool the sensory system into perceiving the missing limb

84

According to the gate theory of pain transmission, activity in the ______ can inhibit the pain pathway in the spinal cord.
A) motor cortex
B) hepatic–proprioceptive pathway
C) nocioceptive pathway
D) corticospinal pathway

B) hepatic–proprioceptive pathway

85

The gate theory of pain can help explain:
A) the existence of phantom limb pain.
B) why rubbing an injury can reduce pain.
C) why you feel more pain when you hurt your finger than you do when you hurt your leg.
D) None of the answers is correct.

B) why rubbing an injury can reduce pain

86

Stimulation of the ______ is effective in reducing pain.
A) amygdala
B) thalamus
C) periaqueductal gray matter
D) cerebellum

C) periaqueductal gray matter

87

Pain in blood vessels and internal organs that is felt as pain at the body surface is known as: A) transferred pain.
B) relocated pain.
C) referred pain.
D) transposed pain.

C) referred pain

88

The vestibular system is in the:
A) brainstem.
B) spinal cord.
C) motor cortex.
D) middle ear.

D) middle ear

89

Action potentials in the semicircular canals are stimulated by:
A) bending hair cells.
B) the endolymph.
C) the utricle and saccule.
D) Pacinian corpuscles.

A) bending hair cells

90

Hair cells in the vestibular system fire more action potentials when the hair:
A) is bent in a specific direction.
B) vibrates at a specific frequency.
C) is moved with a specific force.
D) cells remain motionless.

A) is bent in a specific direction

91

Vestibular receptors convey information about:
A) changes in the direction of movement.
B) changes in the speed of movement.
C) the position of one’s body in relation to gravity.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

92

The primary somatosensory cortex is found in the ______, while the secondary somatosensory cortex is located in the ______.
A) precentral gyrus; postcentral gyrus
B) parietal lobe; postcentral gyrus
C) postcentral gyrus; parietal lobe
D) precentral gyrus; parietal lobe

C) postcentral gyrus; parietal lobe

93

The homunculus on the primary somatosensory cortex is most similar to the homunculus found in the:
A) primary motor cortex.
B) secondary motor cortex.
C) cerebellum.
D) basal ganglia.

A) primary motor cortex

94

How many homunculi are present in the primary somatosensory cortex, according to the Kaas model?
A) one
B) three
C) four
D) five

C) four

95

Neurons in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex are responsive to:
A) muscle sense.
B) slow-responding skin receptors.
C) fast-responding skin receptors.
D) pressure.

B) slow-responding skin receptors

96

Damage to the primary somatosensory motor cortex results in:
A) impaired sensory discrimination on the ipsilateral side.
B) impaired sensory discrimination on the contralateral side.
C) impaired sensory discrimination on both sides.
D) no impairment of sensory discrimination.

B) impaired sensory discrimination on the contralateral side

97

Research has demonstrated that tickle perception is primarily due to:
A) touch sensations.
B) the predictability of the touch sensations.
C) the unpredictability of the touch sensations.
D) the laughter associated with tickling

C) the unpredictability of the touch sensations

98

In a study by Pons and colleagues, monkeys’ arm nerves were cut, thereby depriving the somatosensory cortex of sensory input from the arm. Several years later, when the researchers mapped the monkeys’ somatosensory homunculus, they discovered that the arm region of the homunculus:
A) had expanded.
B) was the same size it was previously.
C) had been taken over by the face region.
D) had been taken over by the foot region.

C) had been taken over by the face region

99

The inability to accurately complete a plan of motor action is called:
A) ataxia.
B) aphasia.
C) apraxia.
D) acalcula.

C) apraxia

100

The dorsal stream is the ______ stream, while the ventral stream is the ______ stream.
A) what; how
B) how; what
C) where; how
D) how; where

B) how; what