Flashcards in Chapter 11- Performance Enhancing Substances And Methods Deck (68):
WHich of the following dietary supplements is (are) considered a stimulant?
D. Citrus aurantium
Which of the following is NOT part of caffeines role in improving athletic performance?
A. Increase power production
B. Decrease glycogen depletion
C.decreased urine production
Which of the following is the BEST reason for aerobic endurance athletes to avoid erythropoietin use?
A. Lean body mass
B. Max strength
C. Endurance performance
Which of the following performance enhancing substances is most likely to increase lean body mass?
Athletes who choose to use performance enhancing substances do so with the hope that they will augment their training adaptations and ultimately improve their sport performance
There are some that are banned
A _____ aid can be any substances, mechanical aid, or training method that improves sport performance, for the purposes of this chapter the term refers specifically to pharmacological AIDS.
An athlete's first priority should be to apply sound principles of training, including adequate nutrition, before using any nutritional supplement or erogenic aid. Before purchasing or consuming a product, an athlete should seek guidance from qualified professions to make sure the choice is both legal and effective.
There are two categories of performance enhancing substances
1. Hormones and drugs that mimic their effects
2. Dietary supplements
Hormones such as ____ play an integral role in the adaptive response to strength and conditioning activitiesT
Drugs such as ___ are important for energy mobilization.
_____ that is found in coffee is considered a drug
The distinction between a drug and a dietary supplement affects whether or not a product meets the USA ____ approval for safety and effectiveness.
The ___ definition of a drug encompasses substances that change the body's structure or function.
Generally ____ supplements are highly refined products that would not be confused with a food.
A product intended to supplement the diet that contains one or more of the following:
A. A vitamin
D. Amino acid
____ substances are usually banned from athletic competition when a consensus is reached that they may provide an unfair competitive edge or pose a significant health risk.
National collegiate athletic association banned drug classes.
2. Anabolic agents
3. Alcoho and beta blockers
5. Street drugs
6. Peptide hormones
7. Anti estrogens
8. Beta 2 agonist
Anabolic steroids are a class __ substance
A variety of ___ are used to enhance athletic performance
The most common hormone used is?
___ is the primary androgen hormone that interacts with skeletal muscle tissue
____ ___ are the synthetic (human made) derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone.
Increases in test concentrations stimulate protein synthesis, resulting in improvements in muscle size, body mass, and strength. Increase in male secondary sex characteristic.
Body hair, deep voice, baldness, libido, aggressiveness
Testosterone itself is a very poor ergogenic aid. Rapid degradation occurs when testosterone itself is given either orally or through injectable administration.
Orally given steroids:
Athletes typically use anabolic steriods in a ___ regimen, in which they administer several different drugs simultaneously.
The rationale for stacking is to increase the potency of each drug by adding another. It may be enhanced when it is consumed simultaneously with another anabolic agent.
Most do cycles on and off
It is believed that athletes whose goals are to improve athletic performance are the primary users of anabolic steroid
Body builders with altered image of their self believe they look small and weak "reverse anorexia nervousa" also muscle dysmorphia
The benefits from steriods include increase muscle mass, strength, and athletic performance.
The increase in protein synthesis are likely responsible for the increases observed in lean muscle mass
____- ____ use is all associated with changes in aggression, arousal, and irritability/
Affected systems from steriods:
_____ are precursors to the syntheses of other hormones and are theorized to increase the body's ability to produce a given hormone.
____ ___ ___ is a hormone obtained form the placenta of pregnant women and s very closely related in structure and function to lute nixing hormone.
Human chorionic hormone
HCG is the pregnancy indicator by the over the counter pregnancy kit
It is not found in the body at any other time
HCG is sometime injected into overweight women under medical supervision in conjunction with low calorie diets for the purpose of WEIGHT LOSS.
Not very effective. Caloric restriction is the cause for weight loss
NO performance enhancing in women that take HCG but for men it can increase testicular test production.
Used when finishing a cycle of steriods and are looking to activate their own endogenous testosterone prodoctuon
___ is a potent anabolic hormone. It is secreted by the pan crease in response to elevation in blood glucose or specific amino acids. Since it increases protein synthese, it is considered an anabolic hormone
SOme body builders take insulin injections. Very dangerous
___ ___ __, a protein secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, has several important physiological functions that enhance its ergogenic effect. It's an anabolic due to its stimulation of bone and skeltal muscle growth but also helps with maintaining glucose levels.
Human growth hormone
The use of human growth hormone a performance enghancing substance is believed to be widespread amoung professional athletes. It is usually taken alone or stacked.
HGH cannot be detected in a urine drug test. But can in a blood test.
Growth hormone is a protein molecule. Injection is necessary in order to avoid its complete metabolism and maintain its effectiveness. Oral does not result in any benefit
Excessive secretion of HGH during childhood can cause gigantism, also acromegaly (disfiguring by widening of the bones)
Diabetes, muscle, joint, bone pain, abnormal growth in organs
One of the limiting factors for endurance performance is the athlete's ability to deliver oxygen to the contracting skeletal muscle.
Blood doping increases ones red blood cell mass and is typically conducted using blood transfusions or taking a hormone known as erythropoietin.
There are two forms of blood doping:
Autologous and homologous
Autologous is the transfusion of ones own blood which has been stored until needed.
Homologous has been taken from someone else with the same blood type.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is produced in the kidneys and stimulates the production of new red blood cells. (Lance arm strong)
The EPO level in the blood increases in response to chronic aerobic endurance exercise.
EPO provides therapeutic benefit in the treatment of anemia but can cause serious health risk for athletes using for competition.
Synthetic B-andrenergic agonist, or B AGONIST, are substances chemically related to epinephrine, a hormone produced in the adrenal medulla that regulates physiological effects, such as lipoysis (breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (increased energy exp. resulting in the production of heat)
B-agonist were originally developed for the treatment of asthma. They increase in lean mass also referred to as " partitioning agents"
_____ are a class of drugs that block the B-adrenergic receptors, preventing the catecholamines from binding. They are typically prescribed by cardiologist for cardiovascular disease. They might reduce anxiety and tremors during performance.
Essential amino acids are ____ produced in the body and must be obtained through the diet. These include isoleucine, valine, lysine,....
High levels of EAAs can be found in animal products and in plants such as spinach and broccoli.
It is important to note that even though nonessential amino acids are not required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, this does not mean that they are not important for maximizing training adaptations.
The BRanch chain amino acids (BCAAs) isoleucine, leucine, and valine that are responsible for increasing muscle protein synthese.
Of the 3, LEUCINE is the key amino acid for increasing muscle protein synthesis
The BCAA leucine is a key regulator in stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Leucine directly activates the Akt/mTOR pathway in skeletal muscle, which is a KEY pathway in skeletal muscle protein synthesis.
No known adverse effects of BCAA
____ is a conditionally essential amino acid and has crucial roles in nutrition and metabolism.
Arginine is required for the synthesis of protein and creative, and it's metabolism results in the production of Nitric oxide.
Increase blood flow
Oral arginine supplementation is most often marketed for its potential to elevate nitric oxide levels. NO possesses many roles but it's effects on VASODIALATION (the widening of the blood vessel) are what make it important during exercising.
Nitric oxide levels are increased so more blood flow to muscles.
A natural outcome of nitric oxide production is an increased muscle blood flow.
Also known to help improve endurance exercises.
Adverse affects to arginine are usually when taken larger doses that 13-30g and can have nausea, cramps..
Due to its inability to increase nitric oxide production, enhance muscle blood flow, or improve endurance, oral arginine is not recommended for healthy athletes.
B-alanine is a nonessential amino acid that is common in many foods such as chicken
It has been studied for its effects on strength, aerobic power and high intensity. In contrast to creating, it does not seem to improve max strength.
Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid meaning that it counteracts or neutralizes a is (LOW PH). It is naturally formed in the body and is also found in baking soda.
Helps with high intensity exercises
L-carnitine is synthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine and is responsible for the transport of oxidized for energy.
Studies show it may help enhance recovery from exercise.
Creatine is a nitrogenous organic compound that is synthesized naturally in the body, primarily in the liver, and helps to supply energy to all cells in the body . Can also be eaten App. 98% of creatine is stored in muscle .
Creatine is the form of Pcr. Has an essential role in energy metabolism as. A substrate for the formation of ATP. Especially during short duration, high intensity exercises.
Depletion of muscle creatine phosphate during exercise is the primary mechanics leading to fatigue.
STrength increases with creatine.
Saturation limit for creatine is 150- 160 mmol/kg. Any more is not usable.
Creatine supp. Has been shown to increase max strength, power, and lean body mass in both trained and untrained and is safe and inexpensive
Prolonged creatine supp. Has been generally associated with increases in body weight. Fat free mass. Partly related to an increase in total body water.
The effects of stimulants include reduced fatigue, increased alertness. Some available in food and some medication.
Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant
Caffeine helps prolong endurance exercises but not necessarily sprint or power .
In doses 3-9mg/kg body weight consumed 60 min before exercise, caffeine is ergogenic. There is no further benefit when it is consumed at higher dosages.
A lethal dose of caffeine is typically in excess of 5g, which is about 42 cups of coffee.
Ephedrine, another B-agonist has been widely used throughout the world for temporary relief from asthma, allergies. Popular among body builders due to its strong thermogenic quality.
A thermogenic drug works by elevating basal metabolic rate, can be stacked with caffeine.
Citrus aurantium is from a fruit known as bitter orange helps digestive problems but it is also a mild stimulant and it thought to contribute to appetite suppression and metabolic rate lipoysis.
If combine with caffeine significant improvements in time to fatigue have bee nreported.