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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Terms Deck (42):
1

The study of the synthesis and structure of carbohydrates and how carbohydrates are attached to and recognized by other molecules such as proteins.

Glycobiology

2

The study of the glycome, all of the carbohydrates and carbohydrate-associated molecules that cells produce.

Glycomics

3

Are aldehydes or ketones that have two or more hydroxyl groups.

Monosaccharide

4

Monosaccharide that contains a keto group.

Ketose

5

Monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde group.

Aldose

6

Three carbon atoms in a monosaccharide

Triose

7

Four carbon atoms in a monosaccharide

Tetrose

8

Five carbon atoms in a monosaccharide

Pentose

9

Six carbon atoms in a monosaccharide

Hexose

10

Seven carbon atoms in a monosaccharide

Heptose

11

Molecules that have identical molecular formulas but differ in how the atoms are ordered.

Constitutional isomer

12

Are isomers that differ in spatial arrangement.

Stereoisomer

13

Type of stereoisomer; mirror images.

Enantiomer

14

Isomers that are not mirror images of each other.

Diastereoisomer

15

Sugars that are diastereoisomers differing in configuration at only a single asymmetric center.

Epimer

16

The product formed when an aldehyde reacts with an alcohol.

Hemiacetal

17

A six-membered ring; cyclic hemiacetal/ketal.

Pyranose

18

The product formed when a ketone reacts with an alcohol.

Hemiketal

19

A five-membered ring; cyclic hemiketal/acetal.

Furanose

20

A diastereoiomeric form of sugars that is present when a cyclic hemiacetal is formed. Alpha/Beta forms

Anomer

21

Sugars that react.

Reducing sugar

22

Sugars that do not react.

Nonreducing sugar

23

Glycosylations that alter the normal biochemical function of modified proteins; A series of reactions between an amino group not participating in a peptide bond in a protein and the aldehyde form of a carbohydrate.

Advanced glycosylation product (AGE)

24

The bond formed between the anomeric carbon atom of glucose and the oxygen atom of an alcohol.

Glycosidic bond

25

These are built by the linkage of two or more monosaccharides by O-glycosidic bonds.

Oligosaccharide

26

Consists of two sugars joined by an O-glycosidic bond.

Disaccharide

27

Large polymeric oligosaccharides formed by the linkage of multiple monosaccharides that play vital roles in energy storage and in maintaining the structural integrity of an organism.

Polysaccharide

28

The storage form of glucose in animal cells.

Glycogen

29

The nutritional reservoir in plants of which there are two forms: amylose-unbranced & amylopectin-branched.

Starch

30

A structural polysaccharide of glucose found in plants.

Cellulose

31

A carbohydrate group can be covalently attached to a protein to form a _________.

Glycoprotein

32

The protein component of this class of glycoproteins is conjugated to a particular type of polysaccharide. They function as lubricant and structural components.

Proteoglycan

33

A conjugated polysaccharide found in proteoglycans.

Glycosaminoglycan

34

In this class of glycoproteins, the protein component is extensively glycosylated to serine or threonine residues by N-acetylgalactosamine. They are capable of forming large polymeric structures and are common in mucous secretions.

Mucin (Mucoprotein)

35

A protein with several potential glycosylation sites can have many different glycosylated forms, each of which can be generated only in a specific cell type or developmental stage.

Glycoform

36

The major pathway for protein glycosylation takes place inside the lumen of the ____ ________.

Endoplasmic reticulum

37

Place where O-linked glycoslation occurs.

Golgi complex

38

Place where a large oligosaccharide destined for attachment to the asparagine residue of a protein is assembled; a specialized lipid molecule located in the ER membrane and contains about 20 isoprene (C5) units.

Dolichol phosphate

39

Catalyzes the formation of glycosidic bonds; complex carbohydrates are synthesized through the action of these specific enzymes.

Glycosyltransferase

40

Proteins that bind specific carbohydrate structures on neighboring cell surfaces.

Glycan-binding protein

41

A class of glycan-binding proteins; they contain two or more binding sites for carbohydrate units. These carbohydrate-binding sites on the surface of one cell interact with arrays of carbohydrates displayed on the surface of another cell.

Lectin

42

Proteins that are members of the C-type family of lectins; they bind immune-system cells to sites of injury in the inflammatory response.

Selectin