Flashcards in Chapter 11 Terms Deck (42):
The study of the synthesis and structure of carbohydrates and how carbohydrates are attached to and recognized by other molecules such as proteins.
The study of the glycome, all of the carbohydrates and carbohydrate-associated molecules that cells produce.
Are aldehydes or ketones that have two or more hydroxyl groups.
Monosaccharide that contains a keto group.
Monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde group.
Three carbon atoms in a monosaccharide
Four carbon atoms in a monosaccharide
Five carbon atoms in a monosaccharide
Six carbon atoms in a monosaccharide
Seven carbon atoms in a monosaccharide
Molecules that have identical molecular formulas but differ in how the atoms are ordered.
Are isomers that differ in spatial arrangement.
Type of stereoisomer; mirror images.
Isomers that are not mirror images of each other.
Sugars that are diastereoisomers differing in configuration at only a single asymmetric center.
The product formed when an aldehyde reacts with an alcohol.
A six-membered ring; cyclic hemiacetal/ketal.
The product formed when a ketone reacts with an alcohol.
A five-membered ring; cyclic hemiketal/acetal.
A diastereoiomeric form of sugars that is present when a cyclic hemiacetal is formed. Alpha/Beta forms
Sugars that react.
Sugars that do not react.
Glycosylations that alter the normal biochemical function of modified proteins; A series of reactions between an amino group not participating in a peptide bond in a protein and the aldehyde form of a carbohydrate.
Advanced glycosylation product (AGE)
The bond formed between the anomeric carbon atom of glucose and the oxygen atom of an alcohol.
These are built by the linkage of two or more monosaccharides by O-glycosidic bonds.
Consists of two sugars joined by an O-glycosidic bond.
Large polymeric oligosaccharides formed by the linkage of multiple monosaccharides that play vital roles in energy storage and in maintaining the structural integrity of an organism.
The storage form of glucose in animal cells.
The nutritional reservoir in plants of which there are two forms: amylose-unbranced & amylopectin-branched.
A structural polysaccharide of glucose found in plants.
A carbohydrate group can be covalently attached to a protein to form a _________.
The protein component of this class of glycoproteins is conjugated to a particular type of polysaccharide. They function as lubricant and structural components.
A conjugated polysaccharide found in proteoglycans.
In this class of glycoproteins, the protein component is extensively glycosylated to serine or threonine residues by N-acetylgalactosamine. They are capable of forming large polymeric structures and are common in mucous secretions.
A protein with several potential glycosylation sites can have many different glycosylated forms, each of which can be generated only in a specific cell type or developmental stage.
The major pathway for protein glycosylation takes place inside the lumen of the ____ ________.
Place where O-linked glycoslation occurs.
Place where a large oligosaccharide destined for attachment to the asparagine residue of a protein is assembled; a specialized lipid molecule located in the ER membrane and contains about 20 isoprene (C5) units.
Catalyzes the formation of glycosidic bonds; complex carbohydrates are synthesized through the action of these specific enzymes.
Proteins that bind specific carbohydrate structures on neighboring cell surfaces.
A class of glycan-binding proteins; they contain two or more binding sites for carbohydrate units. These carbohydrate-binding sites on the surface of one cell interact with arrays of carbohydrates displayed on the surface of another cell.