Chapter 11 - Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Terms Deck (39):
1

politics

the exercise of power and attempts to maintain or to change power relations

2

power

the ability to carry out one’s will, even over the resistance of others

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micropolitics

the exercise of power in everyday life, such as deciding who is going to do the housework or use the remote control

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macropolitics

the exercise of large-scale power, the government being the most common example

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authority

power that people consider legitimate, as rightly exercised over them; also called legitimate power

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coercion

power that people do not accept as rightly exercised over them; also called illegitimate power

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state

a political entity that claims monopoly on the use of violence in some particular territory; commonly known as a country

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revolution

armed resistance designed to overthrow and replace a government

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traditional authority

authority based on custom

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rational–legal authority

authority based on law or written rules and regulations; also called bureaucratic authority

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charismatic authority

authority based on an individual’s outstanding traits, which attract followers

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routinization of charisma

the transfer of authority from a charismatic figure to either a traditional or a rational–legal form of authority

13

city-state

an independent city whose power radiates outward, bringing the adjacent area under its rule

14

monarchy

a form of government headed by a king or queen

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democracy

a government whose authority comes from the people; the term, based on two Greek words, translates literally as “power to the people”

16

direct democracy

a form of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make their decisions

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representative democracy

a form of democracy in which voters elect representatives to meet together to discuss issues and make decisions on their behalf

18

citizenship

the concept that birth (and residence or naturalization) in a country imparts basic rights

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universal citizenship

the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country (or by immigrating and becoming a naturalized citizen)

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dictatorship

a form of government in which an individual has seized power

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oligarchy

a form of government in which a small group of individuals holds power; the rule of the many by the few

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totalitarianism

a form of government that exerts almost total control over people

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proportional representation

an electoral system in which seats in a legislature are divided according to the proportion of votes that each political party receives

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noncentrist party

a political party that represents less popular ideas

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centrist party

a political party that represents the center of political opinion

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coalition government

a government in which a country’s largest party does not have enough votes to rule, and to do so aligns itself with one or more smaller parties

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voter apathy

indifference and inaction on the part of individuals or groups with respect to the political process

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special-interest group

a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action

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lobbyists

people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients

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political action committee (PAC)

an organization formed by one or more special-interest groups to solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation

31

anarchy

a condition of lawlessness or political disorder caused by the absence or collapse of governmental authority

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pluralism

the diffusion of power among many interest groups that prevents any single group from gaining control of the government

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checks and balances

the separation of powers among the three branches of U.S. government—legislative, executive, and judicial—so that each is able to nullify the actions of the other two, thus preventing any single branch from dominating the government

34

power elite

C. Wright Mills’ term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military, and politics who make the nation’s major decisions

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ruling class

another term for the power elite

36

war

armed conflict between nations or politically distinct groups

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dehumanization

the act or process of reducing people to objects that do not deserve the respect or other treatment ordinarily given humans; enables and encourages abuse and klling

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terrorism

the use of violence or the threat of violence to produce fear in order to attain political objectives

39

nationalism

strongly identifying with a nation (a people) accompanied by desiring that nation to be dominant