Chapter 11 The Beginning of Life and Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 The Beginning of Life and Childhood Deck (36):
1

Genetics

The science that accounts for natural differences and resemblances among organisms related by descent

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heredity

the process by which organisms pass genetic traits on to their offspring

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DNA

The combination of proteins, called nucleotides, that arranged to make up an organism's chromosomes

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Human Genome Project

- funded by the US government and was started in 1990 to analyze the human body
- mapping of all the genes within the 23 pairs of human chromosomes
- the project finished early.

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Types of Genetic testing

- predictive
- carrier
- prenatal
- preimplantation
- forensics

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Predictive testing

a test used to see if genes are present that could lead to hereditary disease or other harmful genetic conditions.

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Prenatal testing

a test used to see, through a process called amniocentesis, if harmful genes are present in the fetus

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chromosome

a microscopic structure found within the nucleus of all living cells that carries genes responsible for the organism's characteristics

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gene

a tiny segment of DNA found on a chromosome within a cell's nucleus. It holds the formula for making a specific enzyme or protein.

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genome

all the DNA in an organism, including its genes.

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Forensic testing

a test used in law enforcement to eliminate or designate suspects in a crime, identify homicide victims, or to otherwise analyses DNA samples for law enforcement purposes

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Mutations

a permanent change in the DNA

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amniocentesis

a test where by the fluid is tested for genetic or other conditions that may lead to abnormal development of the fetus.

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genetic counselor

an expert in human genetics who is qualified to counsel individuals who may have inherited genes for certain diseases or conditions.

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genetic discrimination

differential treatment of individuals based on their actual or presumed genetic differences

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genetic engineering

manipulation of DNA within the cells of plants, animals and other organism's through synthesis, alteration or repair to ensure that certain harmful traits will be eliminated in offspring and that desirable traits will appear and be passed on

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clone

an organism produced asexually, usually from a single cell of the parent

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cloning

the process by which organisms are created asexually, usually from a single cell of the parent organism

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xenotransplantation

transplantation of animal tissues and organs into humans

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Objections to animal cloning

- does not always yield viable offspring
- 30% are affected with large offspring syndrome
- premature death

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stem cells

cells that have the potential to become any type of body cell

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multipotent stem cells

stem cells that can become a limited number of types of tissues and cells in the body

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pluripotent stem cells

stem cells that can become almost all types of tissues and cells in the body

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gene therapy

treating harmful genetic diseases or traits by eliminating or modifying the harmful gene

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infertility

the failure to conceive for a period of 12 months or longer due to a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any reproductive part organ or system

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in vitro fertilization (IVF)

fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body literally "in glass" as in a test tube

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artificial insemination

the mechanical injection of viable semen into the vagina

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homologous artificial insemination

the process in which a husband's sperm is mechanically injected into his wife's vagina to fertilize her eggs.

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surrogate mother

a woman who becomes pregnant, usually by artificial insemination or surgical implantation of a fertilized egg, and bears a child for another woman

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heterologous artificial insemination

the process in which donor sperm is mechanically injected into a woman's vagina to fertilize her eggs

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parens patriae

a legal doctrine that gives the state the authority to act in a child's best interest

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Best interest of the child

The standard that best safeguards the child's growth, development and health

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conditions were physicians may hold medical treatment

- chronically irreversibly comatose
- will most certainly die and for whom treatment is considered futile
- would suffer inhumanely if treatment were provided

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safe heaven laws

state laws that allow mothers to abandon newborns to designated safe facilities without penalty

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mature minors

individuals who are for the health care purposes, considered mature enough to comprehend an physician's recommendations and give informed consent

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emancipated minor

individuals who are legally live outside parent's or guardians control