Flashcards in Chapter 11 The Beginning of Life and Childhood Deck (36):
The science that accounts for natural differences and resemblances among organisms related by descent
the process by which organisms pass genetic traits on to their offspring
The combination of proteins, called nucleotides, that arranged to make up an organism's chromosomes
Human Genome Project
- funded by the US government and was started in 1990 to analyze the human body
- mapping of all the genes within the 23 pairs of human chromosomes
- the project finished early.
Types of Genetic testing
a test used to see if genes are present that could lead to hereditary disease or other harmful genetic conditions.
a test used to see, through a process called amniocentesis, if harmful genes are present in the fetus
a microscopic structure found within the nucleus of all living cells that carries genes responsible for the organism's characteristics
a tiny segment of DNA found on a chromosome within a cell's nucleus. It holds the formula for making a specific enzyme or protein.
all the DNA in an organism, including its genes.
a test used in law enforcement to eliminate or designate suspects in a crime, identify homicide victims, or to otherwise analyses DNA samples for law enforcement purposes
a permanent change in the DNA
a test where by the fluid is tested for genetic or other conditions that may lead to abnormal development of the fetus.
an expert in human genetics who is qualified to counsel individuals who may have inherited genes for certain diseases or conditions.
differential treatment of individuals based on their actual or presumed genetic differences
manipulation of DNA within the cells of plants, animals and other organism's through synthesis, alteration or repair to ensure that certain harmful traits will be eliminated in offspring and that desirable traits will appear and be passed on
an organism produced asexually, usually from a single cell of the parent
the process by which organisms are created asexually, usually from a single cell of the parent organism
transplantation of animal tissues and organs into humans
Objections to animal cloning
- does not always yield viable offspring
- 30% are affected with large offspring syndrome
- premature death
cells that have the potential to become any type of body cell
multipotent stem cells
stem cells that can become a limited number of types of tissues and cells in the body
pluripotent stem cells
stem cells that can become almost all types of tissues and cells in the body
treating harmful genetic diseases or traits by eliminating or modifying the harmful gene
the failure to conceive for a period of 12 months or longer due to a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any reproductive part organ or system
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body literally "in glass" as in a test tube
the mechanical injection of viable semen into the vagina
homologous artificial insemination
the process in which a husband's sperm is mechanically injected into his wife's vagina to fertilize her eggs.
a woman who becomes pregnant, usually by artificial insemination or surgical implantation of a fertilized egg, and bears a child for another woman
heterologous artificial insemination
the process in which donor sperm is mechanically injected into a woman's vagina to fertilize her eggs
a legal doctrine that gives the state the authority to act in a child's best interest
Best interest of the child
The standard that best safeguards the child's growth, development and health
conditions were physicians may hold medical treatment
- chronically irreversibly comatose
- will most certainly die and for whom treatment is considered futile
- would suffer inhumanely if treatment were provided
safe heaven laws
state laws that allow mothers to abandon newborns to designated safe facilities without penalty
individuals who are for the health care purposes, considered mature enough to comprehend an physician's recommendations and give informed consent