Chapter 11 - The Great Communicator Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - The Great Communicator Deck (63):
1

ACTH stimulation test

Blood analysis for cortisol levels after administration of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone; used to differentiate pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism from adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism

2

Assays

Laboratory technique used to determine the amount of a particular substance in a sample

3

Dexamethasone suppression test

(also called dex suppression test)
Blood analysis for cortisol levels after administration of synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone); used to differentiate pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism from adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism

4

Radioactive iodine uptake test

Analysis of thyroid function after induction of radioactive iodine has been given orally or intravenously. Absorption of the radioactive iodine is measured with a counter for a specific time period.

5

Thyroid stimulation test

Blood analysis for thyroid hormone levels after administration of synthetic thyroid stimulating hormone, used to differentiate pituitary-dependent from thyroid-dependent dysfunction.

6

Synthetic

Synthetic means pertaining to artificial production. TSH levels also can be measured before and after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

7

Acromegaly

Enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
Acr/o means extremities

8

Addison's disease

Disorder caused by deficient adrenal cortex function
(also called hypoadrenocorticism)

9

Hypoadrenocorticism

Disorder caused by deficient adrenal cortex function
(also called Addison's disease)

10

Adrenopathy

Disease of the adrenal glands

11

Aldosteronism

Disorder caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex, resulting in electrolyte imbalance

12

Electrolyte

A charged substance found in blood

13

Cushing's disease

Disorder caused by excessive adrenal cortex production of glucocorticoid, resulting in increased urination (polyuria), increased drinking (polydipsia), and redistribution of body fat
(also called hyperadrenocorticism)

14

Hyperadrenocorticism

Disorder caused by excessive adrenal cortex production of glucocorticoid, resulting in increased urination (polyuria), increased drinking (polydipsia), and redistribution of body fat
(also called Cushing's disease)

15

Diabetes insipidus

Insufficient antidiuretic hormone production or the inability of the kidneys to respond to ADH stimuli

16

Stimulus

An agent, act, or influence that produces reaction (pl. stimuli)

17

Diabetes mellitus

Metabolic disorder of inadequate secretion of insulin or recognition of insulin by the body, resulting in increased urination, drinking, and weight loss

18

Ketoacidosis

Abnormal condition of low pH accompanied by ketones (by-products of fat metabolism)

19

Acidosis

Abnormal condition of low pH

20

Endocrinopathy

Disease of the hormone-producing system

21

Gynecomastia

Condition of excessive mammary development in males

22

Hypercrinism

Condition of excessive gland secretion

23

Hyperglycemia

Abnormally elevated blood glucose

24

Hypergonadism

Abnormal condition of excessive hormone secretion by the sex glands (ovaries in females; testes in males)

25

Hyperinsulinism

Disorder of excessive hormone that transports blood glucose to body cells

26

Hyperparathyroidism

Abnormal condition of excessive parathyroid hormone secretion resulting in hypercalcemia

27

Hyperpituitarism

Condition of excessive secretion of the pituitary gland

28

Hyperthyroidism

Condition of excessive thyroid hormone.
Signs include increased metabolic rate, weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia

29

Hypocrinism

Condition of deficient gland secretion

30

Hypoglycemia

Abnormally low blood glucose

31

Hypogonadism

Abnormal condition of deficient hormone secretion by the sex glands (ovaries in females; testes in males)

32

Hypoparathyroidism

Abnormal condition of deficient parathyroid hormone secretion resulting in hypocalcemia

33

Hypocalcemia

Abnormally low levels of blood calcium

34

Hypophysitis

Inflammation of the pituitary gland

35

Hypothyroidism

Condition of deficient thyroid hormone.
Signs include decreased metabolic rate, poor hair coat, lethargy, and increased sensitivity to cold

36

Euthyroidism

Condition of normal thyroid function
(prefix eu- means good, well, or easily)

37

Insulinomas

Tumor of the islet of Langerhans of the pancreas

38

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

39

Pheochromocytoma

Tumor of the adrenal medulla resulting in increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine

40

Pinealopathy

Disorder of the pineal gland

41

Pituitarism

Any disorder of the pituitary gland

42

Thymoma

Tumor of the thymus

43

Thyroiditis

Inflammation of the thyroid gland

44

Thyromegaly

Enlargement of the thyroid gland

45

Thyrotoxicosis

Abnormal life-threatening condition of excessive, poisonous quantities of thyroid hormones

46

Adrenalectomy

Surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands

47

Chemical thyroidectomy

Administration of radioactive iodine to suppress thyroid function; also called radioactive iodine therapy

48

Hypophysectomy

Surgical removal of the pituitary gland

49

Lobectomy

Surgical removal of a lobe

50

Pancreatectomy

Surgical removal of the pancreas

51

Pancreatotomy

Surgical incision into the pancreas

52

Parathyroidectomy

Surgical removal of one or more parathyroid glands

53

Pinealectomy

Surgical removal of the pineal gland

54

Thymectomy

Surgical removal of the thymus

55

Thyroidectomy

Surgical removal of the thymus

56

Define Total T4 test

This test measures the amount of thyroxine, or T4, in the blood. T4 is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland; the other is called triiodothyronine, or T3. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located just below the Adam's apple.

57

Define Total T4 (post pill) test

= Therapeutic trial approach
Animal is put on a therapeutic trial of T4 replacement. Reevaluate the animal in 10-12 weeks and measure a post-pill T4 level at that time. If the T4 is within the normal post-pill range, the animal should show a complete recovery after 10-12 weeks of T4. A partial response may mean that the diagnosis was in error. Some advocate taking the animal off of T4 at this time, to evaluate if all the clinical signs return (confirming the diagnosis!!). Among potential problems with the therapeutic trial approach are: what to do with partial responders, what if clinical signs were due to a non-thyroid problem that happened to resolve during the trial therapy, and possible 'pharmacologic' effects of T4 such as stimulation of hair growth. It is more difficult to evaluate thyroid function in an animal on T4 replacement since T4 will suppress the pituitary-thyroid axis. In general, therapeutic trials are not the best option and often lead to a delay in the diagnosis of the real problem.

58

Define Free T4 (ED) test

Free T4 measures only the freely circulating T4 (not bound to protein and less affected by non-thyroidal illnesses).

Background info:
T4 and T3 are released by the thyroid glands in response to thyroid stimulating hormone released from the pituitary gland. All circulating T4 is produced by the thyroid glands, and only 1% circulates not bound to protein (free T4).
Free T4 is the biologically active form. Free T4 by ED is less affected by non-thyroidal illnesses, especially those that decrease protein concentrations or affect the affinity of binding proteins.

59

Define Thyroid Profile 2 test

Total T4, free T4 by ED, TSH

60

Define Thyroid Profile 3 test

Total T4, Free T4 by ED, TSH, Thyroglobulin AA, T4 Autoantibodies

61

Define ACTH response test

The ACTH stimulation test can help diagnose Cushing’s disease or Addison’s disease.
The ACTH stimulation test involves administering a small amount of ACTH by injection and then measuring the levels of cortisol produced over a period of a few hours.

62

Define DEX suppression test

Dexamethasone suppression test measures the response of the adrenal glands to ACTH. Dexamethasone is given and levels of cortisol are measured. Cortisol levels should decrease in response to the administration of dexamethasone.

63

Define progesterone test

It's a blood serum test to measure the levels of progesterone naturally produced in the body. This test can help dog breeders, for example, determine when a female dog is ovulating, and thus determine the ideal time to breed.