Chapter 11: Water Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Water Deck (53)
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1

How much of the Earth's water is freshwater?

2.5% (most is in glaciers, ice caps)

2

How much of the earth's freshwater is on the surface? ground water? ice caps and glaciers?

surface- 1%
groundwater- 20%
frozen- 80%

3

What is a tributary?

A smaller river flowing into a larger one

4

What is a watershed?

A watershed is an area of land drained by a river

5

What kind of flow would a river which flows slow and parallel be called?

Laminar flow

6

What is a turbulent flow?

A turbulent flow is when a river's streamlines are intertwined, mixed. Much erosion takes place

7

Is most stream flow laminar or turbulent?

Turbulent

8

What features determine a stream's velocity?

Gradient \, roughness& size, discharge

9

What is a hydrograph used for?

A hydrograph records the fluctuations in stream height over time (discharge)

10

What is the discharge of a stream? How is it mathematically measured?

Discharge is the volume of water in a stream moving past a point in a time interval
Q[discharge] = V[velocity]*A[cross sectional area]
[length^3 per unit time]

11

What is a suspended load?

A suspended load regards the transport of solid material through streams that is kept suspended by fluid turbulence, clay and silt

12

What is the bed load?

Solid material near bottom of river flow, sand and graval

13

What is the saltation load?

Switched from bed to suspended, bouncing/skipping

14

What does the competence of a stream refer to?

The competence of a stream is the maximum sized of particles that a stream can carry(higher velocity, greater competence)

15

What is the capacity of a stream?

The capacity refers to the TOTAL load a stream can carry (dependent on discharge)

16

Define oxbow and oxbow lake

An oxbow is an extreme bend in a river, an oxbow lake is when part of the river is bent to the extent that the region becomes cut off and remains as an isolatated, U-shapes body of water

17

What is a floodplain?

a floodplain is the shallow area neared to a rivers course that are periodically flooded

18

What is a riparian zone?

A riparian zone is a riverside area that is productive and species-rich

19

What do we call ecosystems that combine elements of both freshwater and dry lands?

Wetlands

20

What is a swamp?

A shallow area of water that occurs in forested areas

21

What is a bog?

A bog is a pond covered in /thick/ floating mats of vegetation

22

What is a freshwater marsh?

A freshwater marsh is an area of shallow water that allows plants to grow above surface water

23

Why are wetlands valuable?

wetlands slow runoff which in turn reduces flooding, recharged aquifers, and filters pollutants

24

[LAKE/PONDS] Littoral zone

The region that rings the edge of a water body

25

What are the three types of wetlands?

Swamp, bogs, and freshwater marshes

26

[LAKES/PONDS]Benthic zone

Region extending along the entire BOTTOM of water body [benthic B--.bottom]

27

[LAKES/PONDS] Limnetic zone

The open portions of a water body where sunlight penetrates the shallow waters

28

[LAKES/PONDS] Profundal zone

Portion of a water body where sunlight does NOT reach

29

What zone of a water body supports the fewest animals?

Profundal zone, no sunlight

30

What kind of lakes have LOW nutrient and HIGH oxygen conditions?

Oligotrophic