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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (26):
1

Which of the following statements regarding poisonings is true?

a. A poison is any substance that causes harmful effects when introduced into the body.
b. All toxins are poisonous when in contact with the human body.
c. The majority of poisonings are intentional and result in homicide or suicide.
d. The number-one cause of poisoning in the United States is prescription medications.

a. A poison is any substance that causes harmful effects when introduced into the body.
b. All toxins are poisonous when in contact with the human body.
c. The majority of poisonings are intentional and result in homicide or suicide.
d. The number-one cause of poisoning in the United States is prescription medications.

Answer: a
Objective: 12-3
Reference: 387, 390

2

Which of the following terms does not indicate a route of absorption in the body?

a. Ingestion
b. Inhalation
c. Distribution
d. Transdermal route

a. Ingestion
b. Inhalation
c. Distribution
d. Transdermal route

Answer: c
Objective: 12-2
Reference: 387-388

3

A 44-year-old patient was found at home unresponsive. Based on his clinical presentation and the fact that he was burning a kerosene heater in an enclosed room, you determine that he is suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning. Based on this information, which route of exposure would you recognize as responsible for the poisoning?

a. Transdermal route
b. Inhalation
c. Ingestion
d. Absorption

a. Transdermal route
b. Inhalation
c. Ingestion
d. Absorption

Answer: b
Objective: 12-2
Reference: 391

4

Distribution of a poisonous substance in the body occurs primarily through the:

a. lymphatic system.
b. circulatory system.
c. endocrine system.
d. gastrointestinal system.

a. lymphatic system.
b. circulatory system.
c. endocrine system.
d. gastrointestinal system.

Answer: b
Objective: 12-1
Reference: 389

5

The process by which the body breaks down a substance is known as:

a. elimination.
b. detoxification.
c. metabolism.
d. distribution.

a. elimination.
b. detoxification.
c. metabolism.
d. distribution.

Answer: c
Objective: 12-1
Reference: 389

6

The speed at which a toxin is distributed in the body is affected by:

a. the heart rate.
b. body mass.
c. the respiratory rate.
d. urination.

a. the heart rate.
b. body mass.
c. the respiratory rate.
d. urination.

Answer: a
Objective: 12-1
Reference: 396

7

Anything that has mass and occupies space is known as a:

a. poison.
b. toxin.
c. cell.
d. substance.

a. poison.
b. toxin.
c. cell.
d. substance.

Answer: d
Objective: 12-3
Reference: 387

8

A 15-year-old admits to taking “a bunch” of extra strength Tylenol tablets. Her mother states it’s nothing to worry about because it was just Tylenol. Based on your training you recognize that this ingestion could have serious consequences. It is because toxic amounts acetaminophen can cause irreversible:

a. liver damage.
b. stomach damage.
c. brain damage.
d. hearing damage.

a. liver damage.
b. stomach damage.
c. brain damage.
d. hearing damage.

Answer: a
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 393

9

You are visiting a friend’s home and suddenly hear a child crying out in the kitchen. As you assess the scene you note kitchen cabinets are open with bottles tossed around. The child is holding her hand to her mouth. Your friend tells you that the child must have tasted something that she didn’t like. Based on your scene assessment, you would:

a. agree with your friend and suggest that a cookie would take the bad taste away.
b. ask your friend if she has Ipecac so you can make the child vomit.
c. call 911 and try to identify which bottle the child may have been drinking from.
d. offer the child a glass of milk to dilute any chemical he may have ingested.

a. agree with your friend and suggest that a cookie would take the bad taste away.
b. ask your friend if she has Ipecac so you can make the child vomit.
c. call 911 and try to identify which bottle the child may have been drinking from.
d. offer the child a glass of milk to dilute any chemical he may have ingested.

Answer: c
Objective: 12-6
Reference: 396

10

You are assisting a paramedic in the aid room to care for a patient who has ingested a toxin. The paramedic states she wants to give the patient activated charcoal. Based on your training you recall that there are specific criteria that should be met before charcoal is administered. Which of the following criteria is not one of the criteria for administering activated charcoal?

a. The patient ingested the poison less than three hours ago.
b. The patient is awake and responsive.
c. Transport time will be prolonged.
d. Authorization has been granted by medical control or some other EMS authority.

a. The patient ingested the poison less than three hours ago.
b. The patient is awake and responsive.
c. Transport time will be prolonged.
d. Authorization has been granted by medical control or some other EMS authority.

Answer: a
Objective: 12-6
Reference: 399

11

It is late Friday evening and you are joining your friends at a cabin for a winter weekend camping trip. When you open the door you notice how nice and warm it is inside. Your friends though are not very welcoming. They tell you they are not feeling well and complain of being lightheaded and nauseated. Based on their symptoms, you are concerned they may be suffering from:

a. carbon dioxide poisoning.
b. alcohol toxicity.
c. excessive heat exposure.
d. carbon monoxide poisoning.

a. carbon dioxide poisoning.
b. alcohol toxicity.
c. excessive heat exposure.
d. carbon monoxide poisoning.

Answer: d
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 394, 397

12

Which of the following statements indicates that the speaker understands inhalation poisonings?

a. “They can occur from inhaling common household products.”
b. “They affect the lungs only and do not circulate systemically.”
c. “An inhalation emergency cannot be occurring if you don’t smell anything.”
d. “Most inhalation poisonings are easily identifiable by a residue around the mouth.”

a. “They can occur from inhaling common household products.”
b. “They affect the lungs only and do not circulate systemically.”
c. “An inhalation emergency cannot be occurring if you don’t smell anything.”
d. “Most inhalation poisonings are easily identifiable by a residue around the mouth.”

Answer: a
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 391

13

You are driving on the highway and see an overturned tanker. A fluid is spilling from the tanker rapidly covering the ground around the driver’s door. The driver appears to be unresponsive. The only marking on the tanker seems to be the name of the tanker company and hazard symbol. Your initial action should be:

a. try not to step in the liquid while pulling the driver away from the truck.
b. have someone call 911 and assess the driver’s ABCDs.
c. remain at a safe distance while calling 911 for assistance.
d. cover your mouth and nose so that you don’t breathe any fumes while you rescue the driver.

a. try not to step in the liquid while pulling the driver away from the truck.
b. have someone call 911 and assess the driver’s ABCDs.
c. remain at a safe distance while calling 911 for assistance.
d. cover your mouth and nose so that you don’t breathe any fumes while you rescue the driver.

Answer: c
Objective: 12-6
Reference: 396

14

You are helping a friend change the battery in his truck when acid from the old battery splashes in his eye. He is complaining of pain in his right eye and is having a hard time keeping it open. He has no problems with airway, breathing, or circulation. What should you do?

a. Cover both his eyes and immediately drive him to the nearest Emergency Department.
b. Place an ice pack on his eye and immediately transport him to the nearest Emergency Department.
c. Pat the eye with a dry towel to absorb the acid.
d. Immediately irrigate the eye with copious amounts of water.

a. Cover both his eyes and immediately drive him to the nearest Emergency Department.
b. Place an ice pack on his eye and immediately transport him to the nearest Emergency Department.
c. Pat the eye with a dry towel to absorb the acid.
d. Immediately irrigate the eye with copious amounts of water.

Answer: d
Objective: 12-6
Reference: 398–399

15

You are at a party and are called to assist a young female college student who is unresponsive. Friends say that she is not a heavy drinker, but tonight she drank an excessive amount of alcohol. She responds only to painful stimuli and has snoring respirations. Her respiratory rate is 8 breaths per minute and her radial pulse is weak. Based on your OEC training your first action would be would be:

a. place her lying on her right side in case she vomits.
b. notify the authorities because she is probably an underage drinker.
c. perform the jaw thrust-head tilt maneuver.
d. ask her friends if she has also ingested any drugs.

a. place her lying on her right side in case she vomits.
b. notify the authorities because she is probably an underage drinker.
c. perform the jaw thrust-head tilt maneuver.
d. ask her friends if she has also ingested any drugs.

Answer: c
Objective: 12-6
Reference: 396

16

You are teaching a class about drug-related emergencies, specifically opiate overdose. Which of the following statements made by students indicates an understanding of possible signs of opiate overdose?

a. “Only illegal narcotics can cause hallucinations, which may make the patient violent.”
b. “When assessing a patient, you must be alert for respiratory depression.”
c. “You should always ask patients if they have chest pain because narcotics increase the heart’s workload.”
d. “You should always check the patient’s pupils because they will be dilated in a narcotics overdose.”

a. “Only illegal narcotics can cause hallucinations, which may make the patient violent.”
b. “When assessing a patient, you must be alert for respiratory depression.”
c. “You should always ask patients if they have chest pain because narcotics increase the heart’s workload.”
d. “You should always check the patient’s pupils because they will be dilated in a narcotics overdose.”

Answer: b
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 392, 396

17

Agitation, elevated heart rate, and elevated blood pressure are signs of intoxication with which of the following types of substances?

a. Cocaine and hallucinogens
b. Antipsychotics and carbon monoxide
c. Inhalants and sleeping pills
d. Alcohol and ethylene glycol

a. Cocaine and hallucinogens
b. Antipsychotics and carbon monoxide
c. Inhalants and sleeping pills
d. Alcohol and ethylene glycol

Answer: a
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 397

18

Substance abuse is defined as:

a. an intentional or unintentional use of a substance or poison that results in a medical emergency.
b. an accidental ingestion of a toxin that interferes with normal functioning.
c. the use of a substance or poison at least once a day.
d. the intentional misuse of a substance that results in significant impairment or distress.

a. an intentional or unintentional use of a substance or poison that results in a medical emergency.
b. an accidental ingestion of a toxin that interferes with normal functioning.
c. the use of a substance or poison at least once a day.
d. the intentional misuse of a substance that results in significant impairment or distress.

Answer: d
Objective: 12-3
Reference: 390

19

A patient in the third day of withdrawal from alcohol could develop all of the following conditions except:

a. rash.
b. seizure activity.
c. hallucinations.
d. muscle tremors.

a. rash.
b. seizure activity.
c. hallucinations.
d. muscle tremors.

Answer: a
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 393

20

Which of the following parts of the body is least often affected by substances?

a. The eyes
b. The heart muscle
c. The lymphatic vessels
d. The blood

a. The eyes
b. The heart muscle
c. The lymphatic vessels
d. The blood

Answer: c
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 389–390

21

A poisonous substance that comes from a living organism is known as a(n):

a. antipsychotic.
b. toxin.
c. chemical.
d. legume.

a. antipsychotic.
b. toxin.
c. chemical.
d. legume.

Answer: b
Objective: 12-3
Reference: 390

22

As a whole, the least toxic of all accidental ingestion-related poisonings involve:

a. alcoholic beverages.
b. acetaminophen.
c. toxic plants.
d. aspirin.

a. alcoholic beverages.
b. acetaminophen.
c. toxic plants.
d. aspirin.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 394

23

For children, the three deadliest poisons are:

a. household cleaners, aspirin, and adult prescriptions.
b. aspirin, acetaminophen, and iron.
c. carbon monoxide, toxic plants, and aspirin.
d. adult prescriptions, alcohol, and daily vitamins.

a. household cleaners, aspirin, and adult prescriptions.
b. aspirin, acetaminophen, and iron.
c. carbon monoxide, toxic plants, and aspirin.
d. adult prescriptions, alcohol, and daily vitamins.

Answer: b
Objective: 12-4
Reference: 393–394

24

The most commonly abused drug in the world is:

a. marijuana.
b. cocaine.
c. amphetamine.
d. alcohol.

a. marijuana.
b. cocaine.
c. amphetamine.
d. alcohol.

Answer: d
Objective: 12-4
Reference: 393

25

In the United States, poison-related information is available 24 hours a day by contacting the:

a. National Institute on Drug Abuse at 1-800-222-HELP.
b. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Hotline at1-800-666-6666.
c. National Poison Center at 1-800-222-1222.
d. Chemical Emergency Center at 1-800-262-8200.

a. National Institute on Drug Abuse at 1-800-222-HELP.
b. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Hotline at1-800-666-6666.
c. National Poison Center at 1-800-222-1222.
d. Chemical Emergency Center at 1-800-262-8200.

Answer: c
Objective: 12-7
Reference: 401

26

The mnemonic DUMBELS and the acronym SLUDGE can help identify specific signs and symptoms associated with:

a. exposure to nerve agents.
b. ingestion of ethylene glycol.
c. ingestion of LSD.
d. overdoses of antipsychotic drugs.

a. exposure to nerve agents.
b. ingestion of ethylene glycol.
c. ingestion of LSD.
d. overdoses of antipsychotic drugs.

Answer: a
Objective: 12-5
Reference: 397