Chapter 12/13 Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psyche > Chapter 12/13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12/13 Deck (58):
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psychological disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors

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attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of the three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

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medical model

the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured often through treatment in a hospital

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DSM-IV-TR

the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition, updated as a 2000 "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

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anxiety disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

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generalized anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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panic disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

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phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or position

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obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)

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post-tramautic stress disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

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port-tramautic growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

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somatoform disorder

psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.

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conversion disorder

a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.

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hypochondriasis

a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

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dissociative disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

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dissociative identity disorder (DID)

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder

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mood disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

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major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

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mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

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bipolar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

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schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

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delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or granger, that may accompany psychotic disorders

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personality disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

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antisocial personality disorder

a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless

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eclectic approach

an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

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psychotherapy

treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth

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psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapists interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight

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resistance

in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

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interpretation

in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight

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transference

in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships

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psychodynamic therapy

therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight

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insight therapies

a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses

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client-centered therapy

a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate client's growth

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active listening

empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies.

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unconditional positive regard

a caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance

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behavior therapy

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

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counterconditioning

a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors

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exposure therapies

behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid

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systematic desensitization

a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.

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virtual reality exposure therapy

an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking

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aversive conditioning

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior

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token economy

an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desire behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats

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cognitive therapy

therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

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cognitive-behavioral therapy

a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy

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family therapy

therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members

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regression toward the mean

the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back toward their average

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meta-analysis

a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

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biomedical therapy

prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system

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psychopharmacology

the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

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antipsychotic drugs

drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder

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tardive dyskinesia

involuntary movements of the facial muscles

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antianxiety drugs

drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

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antidepressant drugs

drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters

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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity

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psychosurgery

surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior

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lobotomy

ice pick to eye to prevent depression

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resilience

the personal strength that helps most cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.