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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (31):
1

What is Cystography?

Radiographic imaging of the urinary bladder
Utilizes fluoroscopy and radiography to visualize the bladder as it fills and empties

2

Pathological changes

tumors inside or outside the bladder, trauma or vesicoureteral reflux
Abnormal backflow of urine into the ureters

3

Cystourethrography

bladder and urethra

4

Voiding cystourethrography

Urethra is visualized while patient voids upon removal of catheter

5

Voiding cystography

Patient’s ability to empty bladder is determined

6

Bladder is filled with contrast of

Adult patient: 200 to 300 mL
Pediatric patient: 50 to 100 mL

7

What is Retrograde Pyelography (RP)

Radiographic technique performed to visualize the proximal ureters and kidneys after the administration of iodinated contrast

8

Retrograde Pyelography (RP) uses to access

ureters for obstruction: stricture, tumor, stone, scarring or other pathological process
Renal function is not examined

9

Negative contrast is

Carbon dioxide
Air

10

Positive contrast is

Barium
Iodine

11

Most frequently chosen contrast for radiography of the GI tract is

Barium Sulfate

12

Double contrast allow

Small lesions to be detected

13

When perforation of the GI tract is suspected a water-soluble iodinated contrast is used

Gastrografin

14

Sonography & NM studies must be scheduled

Prior to contrast studies.

15

Iodinated contrast studies must be performed

prior to barium studies
Barium is more dense than iodine

16

When a patient is scheduled for a lower and upper GI procedure, the lower GI procedure should be

scheduled first
Barium clears quickly from the lower bowel

17

Newborn to 2 years of age

No preparation is necessary

18

Up to the age of 10 years

Low residue meal the evening before

19

Adult patient

NPO after midnight the day of the examination

20

Amount of barium needed for a single-contrast study is generally

1500 mL

21

Patient with Intestinal Stoma

Stoma allows contents of the bowel to be eliminated
Created by bringing a loop of bowel to the skin surface of the abdomen

22

Diseases treated in Intestinal Stoma

Cancer
Diverticulitis
Ulcerative colitis
Traumatic injuries

23

Opening is from the colon

colostomy

24

Opening is from the ileum

ileostomy

25

Two openings

one located toward the rectum and the other toward the small bowel
One opening (proximal stoma) emits fecal material
Second opening (distal stoma) relatively nonfunctioning and emits only mucus

26

Studies of the Upper GI & Small Bowel

Performed to diagnose pathological conditions of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small intestine

27

Adult Prepare for Upper GI & Small Bowel

NPO for 8 hours before examination
No smoking or chewing gum
Increases gastric secretions – dilutes contrast

28

Infants – Prepare for Upper GI & Small Bowel

NPO for 3 to 4 hours

29

1 years old-Prepare for Upper GI & Small Bowel

NPO for 4 to 6 hours

30

Older the child Prepare for Upper GI & Small Bowel

the longer it takes for the stomach to empty

31

What position for Women Pap Smear

Lithotomy position