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Flashcards in chapter 12 Deck (77):
1

idiographic approach

creating detailed descriptions of a specific person's unique personality characteristics

2

nomothetic approach

examine personality in large groups of people, with the aim of making generalizations about personality structure

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Dr.Gorden alport

generated a list of thousands of words that we use to describe people in English and attempted to group them into smaller number

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personality trait

a person habitual patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving

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factor analysis

used to group items that people respond to similarly; terms friendly, warm, kind
-raymond cattell

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the barnum effect

any personality description presented to us can seem like an accurate description of our personality because we tend to only think of instances in our lives where the description applied to us

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bertram forer's study

research participants do survey, researcher presented them with a personality description, deceiving them to think that the description was based on their answers
4.26 match rating

8

McCrae and costa

five factor model: a trait based theory of personality based on the finding that personality can be described using five major dimensions

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openess

creative, new experiences

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conscientiousness

reliable, organized, planned

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extraversion

social, high levels of stimulation

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agreeableness

good natured, trusting

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neuroticism

worried, insecure, anxiety

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honesty-humility

hexaco model of personality: a sex factor theory that generally replications the five factors of the FFM and adds one additional factor: honest humility

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the dark triad

refers to three traits- machiavellianim psychopathy, narcissim and describes a persons who is socially destructive, aggressive, dishonest and cause harm

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right-wing authoritarianism

a highly problematic set of personality characteristics that involve the key tendencies

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3 right- winged authoritarianism

1. obeying orders, and deferring to the established authorities in a society
2. supporting aggression against those who differ form the established social norm
3. believing strongly in maintaining the existing social order

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state

temporary physical a psychological engagement that influence behavior

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temperament

word we use to describe difference in patterns of babies behavior, on dimensions like energy level and moodiness

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reciprocal determinism

behavior internal (personal) factors, and external (situational) factors interact to determine one another and that our personalities are based on interactions among 3 aspects found by albert bandura

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under control children

externalizing behavior internalizing behaviors- more likely to engage: previously inhibited children

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albert bandura

develop social cognitive theory of personality

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triangle

environment, behavioral, and personal

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weird cultures

almost all of psychology research is conducted on people from these cultures, only 2% of pop

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4 dimensions of personality in other countries

-dependability
-social potency
-individualism
-interpersonal relatedness

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essentializing

taking small average differences between groups and inferring that the two groups are completely different from each other

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women rank higher on:

-extraversion
-conscientiousness
-agreeableness
-neuroticism

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individualistic cultures

in members tend to think in terms of their own personal characteristics, to be defensive when criticized, to emphasize their positive traits

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collectivistic cultures

tend to think of themselves in relation to others are not as motivated to defend themselves against criticism and are not as likely to take credit

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identical twins

.50 correlation- all five dimensions
.20 for fraternal

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humourism

which is explained both physically illnesses and disorders of personality as resulting from imbalances in key fluids in the body

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phrenology

the theory that personality charateristics could be assessed by carefully measuring the outer skull (bumps on skull)

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arousal theory of extraversion

arguing that extraversion is determined by peoples threshold for arousal

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ascending reticular activating system

plays a central role in controlling this arousal response

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behavioral activation system (BAS)

is a "go" system arousing the person to action in the pursuit of desired goal

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behavioral inhibition system (BIS)

is more of a danger system, motivating the person to action in order to avoid punishments or other neg outcomes

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jeffery gray

BAS and BIS

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ARAS

functions differently in extraverts and intaverts- more reactive to lower stimulation

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extraversion location

medial orbitofrontal cortext

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conscintiousness location

middle frontal gyrus

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freud has influenced

litature, art and western pop culture in fields of pychiatry and clincal psychology

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conscious mind

is your current awareness, containing everything ypou are aware of right now

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unconscious mind

is a much more vast and powerful but inaccessible part of your consciousness, operating without your conscious endorsement or will will to influence and guide your behaviors

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id

represents a collection of basic biological drives, including those directed toward sex and agression

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super ego

is comprised of our values and moral standards (pleasure principal)

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ego

the decision maker, frequently under tension, trying to reconcile the opposing urges of the id and super ego (reality principal)

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what is the energy that drives the id

libido

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defense mechanisms

unconscious, strategies the ego uses to reduce or avoid anxiety

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rationalization

when we want to justify doing something very selfish

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displacement

if the id wants to do something unacceptable, the ego decides not to do that but do something acceptable

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identification

reduce feelings of insecurity about our selves from super ego

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projection

reducing anxiety that would come from realizing that we have some flow by coming to believe that other people have it too

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reaction formation

reducing anxiety from possessing a morally unacceptable impulse through the ego reinterpreting it as the opposite impulse

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sublimation

reducing anxiety about wanting to engage in socially unacceptable behavior by expressing that urge through some socially noble or respectable activity

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fixation

becoming preoccupied with obtaining the pleasure associated with particular stage

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oral stage

0-18 months basic lack of self cofidence foundation of ego

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anal stage

18-36 months- id focus is on elimination of wastes and main challenge is achieving appropraite way to fulfill need

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phallic stage

3-6 years ids focus is on sexual gratification through genitals

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oedipus complex

boys to mom attraction (hate dad)

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castration anxiety

mom doesnt have penis (dad cut it)

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penis envy

jealous they dont have penis (attracted to dad)

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latency stage

6 years to puberty- personality development takes an intermission

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genital stage

puberty to adulthood- id focus returns to satify sexual urges, super ego what is appropriate

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dream analysis

free association (say word then person say first word that come to mind)

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projective tests

personally tests in which ambiguous images are pretended to an individual to elicit responses that reflect unconscious desires or conflicts

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rorschach inkblot test

people are asked to describe what they see on the inkblot, psychological interpret this descriptive using standard scoring interpretation

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thematic apperception test (TAT)

which person is asked to tel story about ambiguous pics

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analytical psychology

focuses on the role of unconscious archetypes in personality development (carl jung)

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2 types of analytical psychology

personal unconscious and collective unconscious

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personal unconscious

experiences and patterns that were absorbed during the entire experimental unfolding of persons life

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collective unconscious

seperate- non-personal realm of unconscious that holds collective memories and myths of human, into anastral past (alfred adler)

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inferiority complex

struggle many people have with feelings of inferiority which stem from experiences of helpness and powerlessness during childhood

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person -centered perspective

people are basically good and given the right environment their personality will develop fully and normally

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humonistic psychology

humans seek love and fulfillment through their work

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self actualization

which is the drive to grow and fulfill ones potential

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carl rogers

person cited perspective

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martin seigman

positive psych movement