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Flashcards in chapter 12 Deck (20):

Behavioral function:

the objective conditions that influence the behavior of a speaker or writer
- The point for our purposes is not to focus exclusively on structure (although, it is clearly important in language, i.e., verbal behavior) but on function


Behavioral structure:

language usually directs research attention to grammar, syntax, and unobservable mental representation and processes


the defining characteristics of verbal behavior

i. Learned
ii. Modifiable by consequences
iii. Evoked by antecedent stimuli and a history of learning
iv. Rapid and easily executed (more easily than most other behaviors)
v. Arbitrary – you call it tomato; I call it…. But a consistent verbal community.
vi. Phonemes are “arbitrary,” but the consistent sounds for a language, used to facilitate “writing” repertoires


verbal behavior

any behavior involving words, without regard to modality (e.g., spoken, written, gestural).
o Verbal behavior involves both speaker and listener.
o Speakers shape the behavior of listeners and listeners shape the behavior of speakers


vocal behavior

is only an example of the various types of verbal behavior


verbal stimulus

the response product of someone’s verbal behavior


formal similarity

when a verbal stimulus (antecedent) and the response-product of the evoked response are in the same sense mode (e.g., both are sounds [vocal], or both are visual [signs]) and look/feel/sound similar


point-to-point correspondence

subdivisions of the antecedent verbal stimulus control subdivisions of the evoked response (can be in same sense mode or not)



a vocal verbal stimulus occasions a corresponding vocal verbal response
-Another way to think about it: Generalized vocal imitation
- Example: an echo with another person. You say something and they copy you and say it back. A parent says, “mama” so A child says, “mama”
-We have echoic behavior to the extent that (a) it’s occasioned by the parent’s utterance and (b) the phonemes of the child’s utterance have a point-to -point correspondence with those of the parent
-Echoic behavior is defined by correspondence of phonetic units
ANT. vocal verbal RESP. vocal verbal CONS. generalized social SR



A written stimulus occasions a corresponding written response (there is a point to point correspondence)
-The unit of analysis changes with expertise (experience, practice, etc.)
- Point to point correspondence and formal similarity.
ANT. written RESP. written CONS. generalized social SR


Textual Behavior

A written stimulus occasions a corresponding vocal verbal response
- Point to point correspondence, but NO formal similarity.
ANT. written RESP. vocal verbal CONS. generalized social SR



verbal operant behavior that is under the control of a particular EO
- A loose way to talk about manding is requests or commands.
- Asking for a glass of water:
Deprived of water
“May I have a glass of water, please?”
Listener delivers water
Mand is reinforced
ANT. eo RESP. verbal CONS. specific SR
depriv of attn. say mama. gets picked up.



verbal operant behavior whose form is regulated by NONVERBAL SDs, and is maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcement from the verbal community.
-A loose way of talking about tacting is labeling.
-Labeling: An example
A dog is sitting on the couch (nonverbal SD)
Carmen says “dog”
My response is, “Yes, that is a dog. Good job!”
ANT. nonverbal RESP. verbal CONS. generalized social SR


Intraverbal behavior

verbal operant regulated by verbal discriminative stimulus
-There is no point to point correspondence
- Ex. If I show you a card that says “4X5”, you might say, “20”
ANT. verbal RESP. vocal verbal CONS. generalized social SR


stimulus equivalence

the presentation of one class of stimuli sets the occasion for responses made to other stimulus classes.
1. Reflexive (aka, identity) properties
2. Symmetry
3. Transitivity


Reflexive (aka, identity) properties

Can you “say” that A = A (green = green)



the order of the terms is reversible [think opposites]
- Can you “say” that IF A = B, THEN B = A
- If Jane is Molly’s mother, then Molly is Jane’s daughter



common terms in two ordered pairs determine a third ordered pair
- Can you “say” that if A = B, and B= C, then A= C
- Greater than: If G > H, H > I, then G > I


Teaching foreign language nouns

i. Known relations
ii. Tact picture in English
iii. Auditory(English)-visual(picture) conditional discrimination


Unknown relations

i. Tact picture in Spanish
ii. Auditory(Spanish)-visual(picture) conditional discrimination
iii. Foreign-to-native intraverbal (i.e., hear Spanish, say English)
iv. Native-to-foreign intraverbal (i.e., hear English, say Spanish)