chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

chemistry > chapter 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 12 Deck (28):
1

functional groups

somethign that sticks off of carbon skeleton

2

alchol

contains a hydroxyl group (-oh)

3

phenol

contain hydroxyl group bonded to benzene ring

4

thiol

contain - SH group

5

ehter

contain C-O-C

6

IUPAC SYSTEMreplace e with ol

mehtanol is ipuac and common name methyl alcohol
ethanol ipuac common name is ethyl alcohol

7

glycerol

is a trihydroxy alcohol
viscous liquid obrained

8

ethylene glycol

used as antifreeze in heating adn coolin systems
as a solvent for paints, inks, and plastics
in production of synthetic fibers such as dacron.
has sweet teaste so is attractive to pets and children. if ingested it is oxidized to oxalic acid and forms insoluble salts in the kidneys that cause renal damage. it is therefore considered very toxic.

9

ethylene glycol

used as antifreeze in heating adn coolin systems
as a solvent for paints, inks, and plastics
in production of synthetic fibers such as dacron.
has sweet teaste so is attractive to pets and children. if ingested it is oxidized to oxalic acid and forms insoluble salts in the kidneys that cause renal damage. it is therefore considered very toxic.

10

bisphenol A (BPA)

used to make polycarbonate, a clear palstic used to manufacture plastic bottles including baby bottles
washing polycarbonate bottles with certain detergentsor at high temps causes it to oxidize.

11

derivative phenols

found in cooking materials

12

THiols

contain sulfur
contain a thiol (-SH) group
often have strong adn sometimes disagreeable odors
are found in cheese, onions, garlic, and oysters
used to detect gas leaks.
makes hair curly.

13

NAMING THIOL

adding thiol to alkane name of longest carbon chain and number carbon chain from teh end nearer the -SHgroup.

14

ether

contains -o- between two carbon grops that are alkys or aromatic rings
has ben structure like wather and alcs do
havs a common name that gives alkyl names of the attachdgropus follwed by ehter

15

ether

contains -o- between two carbon grops that are alkys or aromatic rings
has ben structure like wather and alcs do
havs a common name that gives alkyl names of the attachdgropus follwed by ehter
used for hundreds of years until fifties. retain the ehter group.
repalce hydrogen atoms on carbon with halogen atoms to reduce the volatility and flammability of the ethers.

16

carbonyl group

consist of carbon-oxygen polar doulbe bond with two grops of atoms attached ot carbon.
has very electronegative oxygen atom
has two loen pari electrons on teh O atom
has strong diplode with a partial positive chage on C and a partial negative charge on O

17

carbonyl group

consist of carbon-oxygen polar doulbe bond with two grops of atoms attached ot carbon.
has very electronegative oxygen atom
has two loen pari electrons on teh O atom
has strong diplode with a partial positive chage on C and a partial negative charge on O

18

carbonyl group

aldehyded attached to carbon atom and at least one H atom

19

ketone

attached to twoalkyl group

20

aldheyde

writtten as -CHO with double bond understood
in ketone carbonyll group is bonded to two alkyl groups or aromatic rings. the keto group (c--o) can sometimes ????

21

naming aldehydes. ipuac name in which the e in alkane name is changed to al. name longest chain replace e with al. common names are:

one carbon, form
two carbon, acet
three carbon, propion
foru carbon, butyr

22

naming ketones

e in alkane name is replaced with one. common name alkyl groups attahced to cabonyl group named alpha followed by ketone.

23

alkdehyds and ketones in water

form hydrobben bonds with water molecules between carbonyl oxygen and hydrogen atoms on water molecules
are very soluble when they have four or fewer carbons but not soluble when they have longer hydrocarbon chains, which are nonpolar, that diminish the solubility effect of the polar carbonyl group

24

alkdehyds and ketones in water

form hydrobben bonds with water molecules between carbonyl oxygen and hydrogen atoms on water molecules
are very soluble when they have four or fewer carbons but not soluble when they have longer hydrocarbon chains, which are nonpolar, that diminish the solubility effect of the polar carbonyl group

25

alchol dehydration

when heated with an acid catlyst. the loss of -h and -oh from adjacent carbon atoms producing an alkene and water.

26

oxidation

reactins increase number of carbon-oxygen bonds by the addition of oxygen or a loss of hydrogen atoms

27

reduction

reactions reduce number of bonds between carbonand oxygen atoms.

28

alcohols undergo

oxidation with increase number of carbon and oxygen. furthur oxidize to produce carboxylic acid.