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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (29):
1

Motivation

The psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior

Unfulfilled need
Motivation
Behaviors
Rewards- extrinsic or intrinsic
Feedback

2

Extrinsic rewards

Payoff a person receives from others for performing a particular task

3

Intrinsic rewards

Satisfaction a person receives from performing the particular task

4

Content perspectives

Theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people

5

Needs

Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior

6

Maslows Hierarchy of needs

Theory proposes that people are motivated by five levels of needs
1. Physiological base of triangle
2. Safety
3. Love
4. Esteem
5. Self-actualization top of triangle

7

McClellands Acquired Needs Theory

State that three needs -achievements, affiliation, and power - are major motives of determining peoples behavior in the workplace

Example, “control freaks” are more focused on power the achievements then affiliation
Well balanced is balanced lol

8

Need for achievement

Desire to achieve excellence in challenging tasks

9

Need for affiliation

Desire for friendly and warm relations with other people

10

Need for power

Desire to be responsible for or control other people

11

Deck and Ryan’s self-determination theory

Assumes that people are driven to try to grow and attain fulfillment with their behavior and well being influenced by three innate needs: competent, autonomy, and relatedness

12

Competence

People need to feel qualified, knowledgeable, and capable of completing a goal or task and to learn different skills

13

Autonomy

People need to feel they have freedom and the discretion to determine what they want to do how they want to do it

14

Relatedness

People need to feel a sense of belonging

15

Two-factor theory

•proposed that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors - work satisfaction from so-called motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from so-called hygiene factors

16

Hygiene factors

factors associated with job dissatisfaction which affect the job context in which people work

17

Motivating factors

factors associated with job satisfaction which affects the job content or the rewards of work performance

18

Process perspectives

concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act—how employees choose behavior to meet their needs
•Equity theory
•Expectancy theory
•Goal-setting theory

19

Equity theory

Focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others
•Inputs, outputs, comparison

20

Expectancy theory

suggests that people are motivated by two things: (1) how much they want something and (2) how likely they think they are to get it

21

Expectancy

•belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance

22

Instrumentality

Expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome

23

Valence

The value a worker assigns to an outcome

24

Job design

Division of an organization’s work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance
•Job simplification, job enlargement, job enrichment

25

Reinforcement theory

attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated

26

Positive reinforcement

Use of positive consequences to encourage desire able behavior

27

Negative reinforcement

process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative

28

Extinction

weakening of behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced

29

Punishment

process of weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing something positive