Chapter 12 Eukaryotic members of the Microbial World Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Eukaryotic members of the Microbial World Deck (70):
1

In the late 19th century, immigration from Ireland to the U.S. occurred in high numbers due to an infection of potatoes by


A. bacteria.

B. viruses.

C. fungi.

D. amoeboid protozoa.

C. fungi.

2

Plant pathology grew in importance as a field of study after it was shown that the Irish potato blight was caused by


A. bacteria.

B. viruses.

C. fungi.

D. amoeboid protozoa.

C. fungi.

3

Algae are important environmentally as


A. major producers of carbon dioxide.

B. major producers of oxygen.

C. local flora.

D. local contaminants.

B. major producers of oxygen.

4

Free-floating, photosynthetic organisms found in marine environments are


A. Bucella.

B. blue-green algae.

C. krill.

D. phytoplankton.

D. phytoplankton.

5

Algae


A. often grow in areas where other forms of life may have difficulty.

B. are strictly macroscopic organisms.

C. have a vascular system similar to plants.

D. are only found in the soil.

A. often grow in areas where other forms of life may have difficulty.

6

Macroscopic algae possess a special structure that acts as an anchor and is commonly called


A. a thallus.

B. a holdfast.

C. roots.

D. the stipe.

B. a holdfast.

7

Agar is obtained from


A. bacteria.

B. algae.

C. protozoans.

D. plants.

B. algae.

8

Diatoms are algae whose silicon dioxide-containing shells are useful economically as


A. filters.

B. fertilizers.

C. stabilizers.

D. thickeners.

A. filters.

9

The site in a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell where photosynthesis occurs is the


A. nucleus.

B. carotenoid.

C. mitochondria.

D. chloroplast.

D. chloroplast.

10

Paralytic shellfish poisoning occurs when humans eat shellfish that have fed on


A. Gonyaulax spp.

B. Salmonella spp.

C. Gymnodium spp.

D. E. coli.

A. Gonyaulax spp.

11

Sexual reproduction in algae utilizes meiosis that results in the production of


A. spores with twice as much DNA as the parental cells.

B. gametes with half the amount of DNA as in the parental cells.

C. spores with the same amount of DNA as the parental cells.

D. swarming cells with the same amount of DNA as the parental cells.

B. gametes with half the amount of DNA as in the parental cells.

12

Gonyaulax


A. produces brevetoxin.

B. produces a non-protein neurotoxin.

C. infects the nervous system of humans.

D. is a dinoflagellate.

E. produces a non-protein neurotoxin AND is a dinoflagellate.

E. produces a non-protein neurotoxin AND is a dinoflagellate.

13

One of the organisms that may cause red tide is


A. Chlorophyta.

B. Pyrrophyta.

C. Gymnodinium.

D. Euglenophyta.

C. Gymnodinium.

You get red in the gym lifting hard

14

Which dinoflagellate kills fish by dispersing toxins directly into the water?


A. Pyrrophyta.

B. Chlorophyta.

C. Rhodophyta.

D. Pfiesteria.

D. Pfiesteria.

15

Single-celled eukaryotic organisms that lack chlorophyll are called


A. Algae.

B. Protozoa.

C. Chlorophyta.

D. Salmonella.

B. Protozoa.

16

Protozoan classification is based on their means of


A. locomotion.

B. growth.

C. reproduction.

D. obtaining nutrients.

A. locomotion.

17

Sarcodina move by means of


A. flagella.

B. apicomplexans.

C. cilia.

D. pseudopodia.

D. pseudopodia.

18

Protozoans are an important part of the food chain ingesting large numbers of


A. fish.

B. bacteria and algae.

C. shellfish.

D. other protozoans.

B. bacteria and algae.

19

The most necessary habitat requirement of protozoa is


A. moisture.

B. light.

C. temperature.

D. UV light.

A. moisture.

20

The ability to exist as either a trophozoite or a cyst is characteristic of many


A. fungi.

B. viruses.

C. protozoa.

D. bacteria.

C. protozoa.

21

Schizogony


A. means multiple fissions.

B. is performed by bacteria.

C. is performed by protozoa.

D. is a form of reproduction.

E. means multiple fissions AND is performed by protozoa.

E. means multiple fissions AND is performed by protozoa.

22

One of the greatest causes of human deaths through time has been due to


A. Giardia spp.

B. Histoplasma spp.

C. Trypanosoma spp.

D. Plasmodium spp.

D. Plasmodium spp.

23

Most fungi are


A. aerobic or facultatively anaerobic.

B. obligate anaerobes.

C. obligate aerobes.

D. microaerophiles.

A. aerobic or facultatively anaerobic.

24

Fungi are particularly adept at infecting


A. protozoans.

B. algae.

C. animals.

D. plants.

D. plants.

25

The return of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and nitrogen to the soil is due to the action of


A. viruses and plants.

B. bacteria and viruses.

C. fungi and bacteria.

D. fungi and viruses.

C. fungi and bacteria.

26

All fungi have ______ in their cell walls.


A. cellulose

B. pectin

C. peptidoglycan

D. chitin

D. chitin

27

Fungi are classified according to their


A. mode of locomotion.

B. morphology.

C. mode of nutrition.

D. method of sexual reproduction.

D. method of sexual reproduction.
sex funnnnn

28

The group of Fungi in which sexual reproduction has not been observed is


A. Ascomycetes.

B. Deuteromycetes.

C. Zygomycetes.

D. Basidiomycetes.

B. Deuteromycetes.
deuteronomy, bible, they don't have sex.

29

Deuteromycetes has been further classified using


A. DNA probes.

B. rRNA analysis.

C. Southern blotting.

D. replica plating.

B. rRNA analysis.

DNA probes aren't enough

30

The terms yeast, mold, and mushrooms refers to fungal


A. reproduction.

B. morphology.

C. nutrition.

D. parasites.

B. morphology.

31

A tangle of fungal hyphae is generally known as a


A. bud.

B. mycelium.

C. germ tube.

D. spore.

B. mycelium.

32

Dimorphic fungi


A. may grow as mycelia or yeast.

B. are often associated with disease in humans.

C. are mushrooms.

D. are strictly hyphae.

E. may grow as mycelia or yeast AND are often associated with disease in humans.

E. may grow as mycelia or yeast AND are often associated with disease in humans.

di-2 people

33

Fungal spores are a major cause of


A. anaerobic disease.

B. fermentation.

C. food spoilage.

D. asthma.

D. asthma.

34

The pH at which most fungi thrive is


A. 3.0.

B. 7.0.

C. 8.0.

D. 5.0.

D. 5.0.

35

Haustoria


A. are a form of parasitic protozoan.

B. refers to the reproductive structure formed by slime molds.

C. are specialized hyphae used by parasitic fungi.

D. are the reproductive form of protozoans.

C. are specialized hyphae used by parasitic fungi.

36

Fungi capable of dimorphism grow either as


A. rhizoids or hyphae.

B. yeast-like or mycelium.

C. germ tubes or buds.

D. spores or mushrooms.

B. yeast-like or mycelium.

37

Fungal diseases are generally referred to as


A. mycoses.

B. infections.

C. systemics.

D. infestations.

A. mycoses.

38

Aflatoxins


A. are produced by Aspergillus.

B. are possible carcinogens.

C. may be found in peanuts.

D. are toxins.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

39

Coccidioidomycosis is


A. a fungal disease.

B. a protozoal disease.

C. caused by Coccidioides sp.

D. caused by Candida sp.

E. a fungal disease AND caused by Coccidioides sp.

E. a fungal disease AND caused by Coccidioides sp.

40

Fungi that are important for fermentation of fruits


A. are yeasts.

B. are facultative anaerobes.

C. grow well at acid pH.

D. secrete enzymes that degrade organic molecules.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

41

Fungi are important in


A. food production.

B. food spoilage.

C. production of antibiotics.

D. disease of plants.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct

42

Fungi are important because of their ability to


A. help many plants grow.

B. cause disease in plants.

C. make certain foods and beverages.

D. spoil food.

E. All of the above.

E. All of the above.

43

Lichens may be an association of


A. several different fungi.

B. protozoa and bacteria.

C. algae and fungus.

D. virus and algae.

C. algae and fungus.

44

Mycorrhizae


A. are vital for the survival of lichens.

B. are vital for the survival of many plants.

C. increase the absorptive ability of roots.

D. are used in the production of wine, beer and bread.

E. are vital for the survival of many plants AND increase the absorptive ability of roots.

E. are vital for the survival of many plants AND increase the absorptive ability of roots.

45

Convergent evolution


A. explains the morphological similarity yet major genetic differences found between slime molds and fungi.

B. refers to two different organisms that develop similar characteristics in adaptation to similar environments.

C. explains the structure of lichens.

D. refers to the one organism dividing into two.

E. explains the morphological similarity yet major genetic differences found between slime molds and fungi AND refers to two different organisms that develop similar characteristics in adaptation to similar environments.

E. explains the morphological similarity yet major genetic differences found between slime molds and fungi AND refers to two different organisms that develop similar characteristics in adaptation to similar environments.

46

When cellular slime molds run out of food, they form a


A. plasmodium.

B. slug.

C. myxamoeba.

D. rhizoid.

B. slug.

47

Lyme disease is transmitted by


A. ticks.

B. lice.

C. mosquitoes.

D. fleas.

A. ticks.

48

Pediculus humanus


A. only uses humans as a host.

B. is carried by mosquitoes.

C. only infects hands.

D. can transmit a bacterial disease.

E. only uses humans as a host AND can transmit a bacterial disease.

E. only uses humans as a host AND can transmit a bacterial disease.

49

Lice and mites


A. are both arachnids.

B. may both be spread by personal contact.

C. are intestinal parasites.

D. cause Lyme disease.

B. may both be spread by personal contact.

50

Which are not arthropods?


A. mosquitoes

B. fleas

C. lice

D. ticks

E. flukes

E. flukes

51

Sarcoptes scabiei


A. transmit bacterial disease.

B. are responsible for scabies.

C. infect the blood.

D. are transmitted by mosquitoes.

B. are responsible for scabies.

52

Fleas


A. if ingested, may transmit a tapeworm to children.

B. may transmit Yersinia pestis.

C. may transmit Lyme disease.

D. may transmit a toxin.

E. if ingested, may transmit a tapeworm to children AND may transmit Yersinia pestis.

E. if ingested, may transmit a tapeworm to children AND may transmit Yersinia pestis.

53

Nematodes


A. are roundworms.

B. are found in the gastrointestinal tract or the blood.

C. are carried by bacteria.

D. have flat segmented bodies.

E. are roundworms AND are found in the gastrointestinal tract or the blood.

E. are roundworms AND are found in the gastrointestinal tract or the blood.

54

Tapeworms


A. have a complicated digestive system.

B. do not have a digestive system.

C. may be transmitted by eating undercooked meat.

D. have a larval stage known as a cercaria.

E. do not have a digestive system AND may be transmitted by eating undercooked meat.

E. do not have a digestive system AND may be transmitted by eating undercooked meat.

55

Algae may directly infect humans and cause disease

FALSE

56

Algae have a vascular system very similar to that found in plants.

FALSE

57

Recently diatoms have been found to be associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning.

TRUE

58

Protozoans are eukaryotes and as such will always possess a nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

FALSE

59

Protozoans are usually multicellular and found in arid environments.

FALSE

60

Fungi are often capable of locomotion through the use of flagella

FALSE

61

Fungus grows well on fruits and many vegetables due to their alkaline pH.

FALSE

62

Slime molds and water molds are types of fungi.

FALSE

63

Most of the medically important multicellular parasites are arthropods or helminths.

TRUE

64

Typically arthropods serve as vectors of disease while helminths directly cause disease

TRUE

65

Why would all protozoa be expected to require large amounts of water in their habitats?


A. They require water to avoid dehydration and death. Without being in water, they would quickly dehydrate (due to their small size) and die.

B. They require water to help them during photosynthesis by providing an electron source.

C. They require water to move around in to seek food particles. Without water, they would be unable to move at all.

D. All of the above are correct.

A. They require water to avoid dehydration and death. Without being in water, they would quickly dehydrate (due to their small size) and die.

66

Are all fungi detrimental (bad) for other organisms?


A. Yes-think of molds that destroy plant crops, or fungal infections that cause athlete's foot. All fungi are bad for organisms they colonize.

B. Yes-fungi feed directly on organic material (oftentimes killing it or feeding on it after the original organism has died). As such, they are always bad for other organisms.

C. No-fungi are sometimes good, sometimes bad for other organisms. It really depends on which fungus you're talking about and the relationship it has with the other organism. Some fungi, for example, can form a symbiotic relationship with plant roots that increases their nutrient and water absorption. This is good.

D. No-fungi are ALWAYS good when they interact with other organisms. There's never a downside or negative aspect to such interactions. Both sides always benefit from the relationship.

C. No-fungi are sometimes good, sometimes bad for other organisms. It really depends on which fungus you're talking about and the relationship it has with the other organism. Some fungi, for example, can form a symbiotic relationship with plant roots that increases their nutrient and water absorption. This is good.

67

Why were the slime molds and water molds once considered to be fungi?


A. Early identification methods focused on appearances rather than biochemical characteristics.

B. Early identification methods focused on appearances rather than genetic similarities/differences.

C. They ARE fungi.

D. They possess the same material in their cells walls (chitin) that fungi possess.

B. Early identification methods focused on appearances rather than genetic similarities/differences.

68

How would increased travel lead to increased spread of multicellular eukaryotic parasites?


A. Many eukaryotic parasites are transmitted directly from person to person via airborne transmission-so getting an infected individual onto a plane of susceptible individuals would increase spread.

B. Many eukaryotic parasites depend on vectors (often small blood-sucking insects) for transmission-so moving an infected individual into an area with new vectors and new susceptible humans would increase the spread of the illness.

C. It really would NOT-most individuals are screened for parasitic infections prior to traveling out of highly-infected areas. We also have quarantine abilities at customs stations for individuals entering the United States.

D. Eukaryotic parasites are too small to travel great distances effectively-by hitching a ride on luggage, clothing, fruit/vegetables, and other food products, they can enter new geographic areas.

B. Many eukaryotic parasites depend on vectors (often small blood-sucking insects) for transmission-so moving an infected individual into an area with new vectors and new susceptible humans would increase the spread of the illness.

69

A molecular biologist working for a government-run fishery in Vietnam is interested in controlling Pfisteria in fish farms. He needs to come up with a treatment that kills Pfisteria without harming the fish and other protists and beneficial algae that serve as food for the young fish. What strategy should the biologist consider for developing a selective treatment?


A. The cell wall of this dinoflagellate algae would have cellulose and pectin, so developing a drug treatment that could be sprayed into the water would kill it without harming the fish or the other algae that they feed on.

B. Since this algae has a motile flagellated form that hurts fish, developing a drug that paralyzes the flagellar structure would prevent it from harming the fish (but would leave the other non-flagellated protozoa and algae they feed on alone).

C. Since the problem lies in the toxins that this algae releases, heating up the water the fish are in to 65-75 degrees Celsius would inactivate the toxin proteins by denaturing them, keeping the fish safe.

D. The cell wall of this dinoflagellate algae has silicon dioxide within it-so limiting the amount of this compound in the fish farm environment would prevent the algae from forming a proper cell wall, leading to their death.

B. Since this algae has a motile flagellated form that hurts fish, developing a drug that paralyzes the flagellar structure would prevent it from harming the fish (but would leave the other non-flagellated protozoa and algae they feed on alone).

70

Why would it be more difficult to treat diseases in humans caused by members of the Eucarya than diseases caused by the Bacteria?


A. Multicellular organisms always have their own immune systems to contend with-so any treatment we develop needs to overcome this built-in protection mechanism in such organisms.

B. Since bacteria are so much simpler (being single-celled), they are inherently easier to kill off than multi-cellular eukaryotic microbes.

C. Eukaryotic microbes use many of the same enzymes and systems as humans-so we lose the ability to target certain molecules that might be present ONLY in the cell type we want to eliminate. There's too much overlap when both organisms are eukaryotic.

D. Eukaryotic microbes (unlike prokaryotes) often secrete compounds that breakdown and eliminate drugs used against them. This makes them much harder to effectively eliminate than bacteria.

C. Eukaryotic microbes use many of the same enzymes and systems as humans-so we lose the ability to target certain molecules that might be present ONLY in the cell type we want to eliminate. There's too much overlap when both organisms are eukaryotic.