Chapter 12: Flexibility, Body Weight, and Stability Ball Exercises Flashcards Preview

NSCA-CPT Part 3 (Exercise Technique) > Chapter 12: Flexibility, Body Weight, and Stability Ball Exercises > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12: Flexibility, Body Weight, and Stability Ball Exercises Deck (84):
1

T/F: Flexibility training is most important in reducing chance of injury

F

2

The ability to move a joint freely through its full ROM

flexibility

3

What is the main purpose of a warm up

elevate core temperature

4

When should flexibility training be included before a workout

when the workout includes dynamic activity such as basketball

5

when should flexibility training be included after a workout

when a workout includes less dyanmic activity such as a stationary bike, or stair climber

6

T/F: some evidence shows that increased flexibility may also provide increased resistance to muscle injury

T

7

The ability to move effectively depends on this

strength with coordination

8

A common problem with low back pain is this condition resulting from tightness, or weakness in certain muscle groups

anterior tilt

9

These factors are controllable by the client to enhance flexibility 4

muscle and connective tissue elasticity
core temperature
activity level
training program

10

These factors are uncontrollable by the client in regards to flexibility 3

joint structure
age
sex

11

T/F: flexibility is joint specific

T

12

This is the major limiting factor to ROM under normal circumstances

muscles and connective tissue

13

most of the difference between individuals in static ROM is do this this

elastic properties of the muscles and tendons attached to the joint

14

This property of muscle and connective tissues is altered as a result of stretching exercises

elasticity

15

When a muscle is held for a period of time under tension in a static stretch, the passive tension in the muscles declines, the muscle 'gives' a little or relaxes

viscoelastic stretch relaxation response

16

the amount of external force required to lengthen the relaxed muscle

passive tension

17

How long can the increased pliability of a muscle/tendon be sustained after the stretch

90 minutes

18

The muscle crossing over or adjacent to a joint will also effect this

flexibility

19

The more easily this yields, the less energy is spent overcoming their resistance

antagonistic muscles

20

Excessive ROM in the joint, just as in the case of this can increase the opportuinity for injury

Hyperlaxity

21

this condition allows the joints to achieve a ROM that exceeds what is considered normal

hyperlaxity

22

The best time to start a flexibility training program

young children, before puberty

23

The low point in flexiblity (age) occurs at this point in development

between the ages of 10-12

24

Differences in the structure of the trunk, hips, and ankles are reasons why this sex is more flexible

females

25

Increases in muscle size, stature, and muscle strength are reasons why this sex is less flexible

males

26

ROM is positively affected by this type of change in core temperature

increase

27

The decrease in flexibility in inactive people primarily occurs because this

connective tissue becomes less pliable when exposed to only limited ROM

28

T/F: resistance training can increase flexibility

T, if well-designed, properly executed, and performed through the entire ROM

29

T/F: resistance training can decrease flexibility

T, if the program emphasizes high loads performed through less than a full ROM

30

What is the reason why flexibility can be impaired from resistance exercise

improper development of a muscle or group of muscles around a joint

31

Two different tissue adaptations targeted by flexibility training

elasticity
plasticity

32

the ability to return to original resting length after a passive stretch

elasticity

33

the tendency to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch

plasticity

34

This tissue only has elastic properties

muscle

35

This tissue has both elastic and plastic properties

ligaments and tendons

36

in order to emphasize plastic stretching, these 3 tenets should be followed

stretch to the point of mild discomfort
hold the stretch for a period of time
stretch only when the core temperature has been elevated

37

this type of stretching occurs when the person who is stretching supplies the force of the stretch

active stretching

38

this type of stretching occurs when a partner or stretching device provides the force for the stretch

passive stretching

39

during this type of stretching the body part is put into motion, and its momentum takes it through the ROM until the muscles are stretched to the limit

ballistic stretching

40

Increased dange of exceeding the extensilbility limits of the tissue, higher energy requirement, greater likelihood of causing muscular soreness, activation of the stretch reflex are all disadvantages of this type of stretching

ballistic stretching

41

most commonly used method of increasing flexibility

static stretching

42

a slow, constant sweep is used, with the stretch position held for 30 seconds

static stretching

43

T/F: static stretching before a dynamic exercise maybe have a negative effect on performance

T

44

T/F: increasing the static stretch time from 30 to 60 seconds has a dramatic effect on improving flexibility

F

45

This stretching technique was originally developed as a technique to relax muscles that demonstarted increased tone or activity

proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

46

Stretching exercises should be done this many days per week

3

47

this is the ideal time to stretch

after aerobic or resistance training due to increased core temperature

48

The hold-relax method of PNF takes advantage of this to increase the stretch

golgi tendon organ reflex

49

This type of stretching may be superior to other stretching methods because it assists muscular relaxation, potentially assiting in increased ROM

PNF

50

T/F: great caution needs to be used when implementing a PNF program in group fitness, or with the young

T, due to increased injury risk

51

When might PNF be useful in a PT setting

when the PT has been trained in PNF, and if the client has a drastic ROM in one or more joints

52

This stretching technique avoids bouncing and includes movements which are specific to a sport or movement pattern

dynamic stretching

53

With reference to the principle of specificity this type of stretching may be the most appropriate because it more closely simulates movements that occur in daily activities

dynamic stretching

54

PTs who wish to implement dynamic flexibility training in a clients program should begin dynamic stretchs with low levels of these because dynamic flexibility require balance and coordination

volume and intensity

55

Dynamic stretchs should be completed this many days a week, and because they use movement, each stretch should be repeated over this distance

2-5 times/week
20-25 yards

56

two drawbacks of dynamic stretching

more physically demanding than static stretching
some joints can more effectively be stretched using static stretching techniques

57

This is an activity that raises the total body temperature, as well as temperature of the muscles participating in vigorous exercise

warm-up

58

increase in blood flow to the muscles
increase in the sensitivity to nerve receptors
increase in the disassociation of oxygen from hemoglobin and myoglobin
increase in the speed of nerve impulse transmission
reduction in muscle viscosity
lowering of the energy rates of metabolic reactions
These are all effects of this

warm-up

59

This increase in tissue temperature that occurs during warm-up is the result of three physiological processes

friction generated by the sliding filaments
metabolism
dilation of intramuscular blood vessels

60

this type of flexibility training also has a regenerative effect, resotring the muscles to their resting length, stimulating blood flow, and reducing muscle spasm

post-workout flexibility training

61

Body temperature should be elevated to this point before beginning flexibility work

the client breaks into a light sweat

62

Three types of warm-up methods

passive
general
specific

63

this method of warm-up involves such methods as hot shower, heating pads, or massage

passive warm-up

64

this method of warm-up involves basic activites that require movement of the major muscle groups, such as jogging, cycling or jumping rope

general warm-up

65

This method of warm-up is more appropriate than passive warm-up when the goal is preparing the body for demanding physical activity

general warm-up

66

This type of warm up includes movements that are an actual part of the activity

specific warm-up

67

this appears to be the most desirable form of warm up, as increases the temperature of the particular muscles that will be used in susequent activity

specific warm-up

68

The warm-up should last this long, or until the client breaks into a light sweat

5-15 minutes

69

this type of training is simply a mode of resistance training in which the resistance is provided by the body rather than by an external weight such as a barbell or the weight stack of a selectorized machine

Body weight training

70

To gain maximal benefits from body weight training this mus be emphasized

performing each exercise in a slow, controlled manor with perfect technique

71

These should be the goal of a body weight training regimen

development of basic strength levels and/or muscular endurance

72

the primary motivation of this type of training is the belief that an unstable surface will provide a greater challenge to the trunk muscles, increasing dynamic balance and possibly help to stabilize the spine in order to prevent injuries

stability ball training

73

use of stability balls is most associated with this type of training

core training

74

T/F: research has shown that the stability ball provides a wider range of movement than most training modes

T

75

T/F: stability ball training has been shown to increase athletic performance

F

76

T/F: force-generating capabilites are increased when using stability ball training

F, they are reduced due to the limb muscles being used to assist in joint stability

77

Advantage or disadvantage to stability ball training: some studies have confirmed increased core stability with use of stabilities balls, but this did not result in improved sport performance

DA

78

Advantage or disadvantage to stability ball training: under unstable conditions training at an intensity necessary to bring about increases in trained individuals is not posible

DA need to have 80% max strength

79

Advantage or disadvantage to stability ball training: sport performance might be better enchanced by free weight exercises performed on a stable surface than exercises performed on a stability ball

DA

80

Advantage or disadvantage to stability ball training: injuries are decreases as a result of improved balance, joint stability, proprioception, and NM control

Advantage

81

Advantage or disadvantage to stability ball training: HR response and Vo2 rates are increased

advantage

82

Advantage or disadvantage to stability ball training: abdominal strength, stabilty, balance, posture, proprioception, and flexibility are increased in pregnant women

advantage

83

Advantage or disadvantage to stability ball training: for some sports that involve a degree of instability, using a stability ball can increase the degree of training specificity

advantage

84

inorder to determine proper stability ball size, this should be the case

the individual sitting on the ball should have their thighs slightly above parallel to the ground