Chapter 12: Host Defenses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Host Defenses Deck (26)
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1

First Line of Defense

any barrier that blocks invasion at the portal of entry; limits access to the internal tissues of the body; not considered a true immune response (too general)

2

Second Line of Defense

internalized system of protective cells and fluids; includes inflammation and phagocytosis; acts rapidly at both the local and systemic levels

3

Third Line of Defense

acquired on an individual basis as each foreign substance is encountered by lymphocytes; the reaction with each different microbe produces unique protective substances; provides long-term immunity

4

Major components of first line of defense (3)

(1) physical barriers; (2) chemical barriers; (3) genetic components

5

Major components of second line of defense (4)

(1) phagocytosis; (2) inflammation; (3) fever; (4) antimicrobial proteins

6

Major components of third line of defense (2)

(1) B-cells; (2) T-cells

7

Physical barrier's on the body's surface (5)

(1) Skin; (2) Hair shaft; (3) Sweat; (4) Mucous membranes; (5) Respiratory tract

8

Genitourinary tract (how does it protect?)

protection through continuous trickle of urine; bladder emptying; vaginal secretions

9

Lysozyme

an enzyme found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan in the cell wall of bacteria

10

Chemical defenses of sweat

sebaceous secretions; high lactic acid

11

Chemical defenses of skin

acidic pH; fatty acid content

12

Stomach and Intestines chemical defenses

HCL in the stomach; digestive juices in the intestines

13

Male and Female genitalia chemical defenses

semen is antimicrobial; vagina has acidic pH due to normal biota

14

Immunology

the study of all features of the body’s second and third lines of defense, study of the body’s response to infectious agents, study of allergies and cancer

15

The Reticuloendothelial System

a support network of connective tissue fibers surrounding all organs; heavily endowed with macrophages

16

The Circulatory System

WBC's circulate through the blood and fuck shit up

17

The Lymphatic System

Filters lymph through vessel like routes and destroys microbes

18

Hematopoiesis

production of RBC's

19

Stem Cells

during development, stem cells proliferate and differentiate into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

20

Whole blood consists of these three parts

blood cells; plasma; serum (used in immune testing; no clotting factors)

21

Location of lymph nodes (3)

(1) armpit (axillary nodes), (2) groin (inguinal nodes), (3) neck (cervical nodes)

22

Lymphatic fluid contains all of the following except

A. white blood cells.
B. extracellular fluid.
C. red blood cells.
D. cellular debris.
E. infectious agents.

C. red blood cells

23

General activities of phagocytosis (3)

(1) survey the tissue compartments and discover microbes, particulate matter, and injured or dead cells;
(2) ingest and eliminate these materials; (3) extract immunogenic information

24

Neutrophils

React early in the inflammatory response to bacteria and other foreign materials and to damaged tissue

25

Monocytes

are transformed into macrophages after they migrate out of the bloodstream and into the tissues

26

Interferon

A small protein produced naturally by certain white blood and tissue cells; defense against microbes and immune regulation