Chapter 12 - Learners With Exceptionalities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 - Learners With Exceptionalities Deck (27):
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Learners With Exceptionalities

Any individuals whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance is so different from the norm - either higher or lower - that additional services are needed to meet the individuals' needs.

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Disability

The limitation of a function, such as cognitive processing or physical or sensory abilities.

2

Handicap

A condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical environment, or the person's attitude.

3

Mental Retardation

A condition, usually present at birth, that results in below-average intellectual skills and poor adaptive behavior.

4

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

An intelligence test score that should be near 100 for people of average intelligence.

5

Learning Disabilities (LD)

Disorders that impede academic progress of people who are not mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed.

6

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

A disorder characterized by difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate; includes impulsive actions and hyperactive behavior.

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Speech Disorders

Oral articulation problems, occurring most frequently among children in the early elementary school grades.

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Language Disorders

Impairments in one's ability to understand language or to express ideas in one's native language.

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Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Exceptionalities characterized by problems with learning, interpersonal relationships, and control of feelings and behavior.

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Conduct Disorders

Socioemotional and behavioral disorders that are indicated in individuals who, for example, are chronically disobedient or disruptive.

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Autism

A category of disability that significantly affects social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and educational performance.

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Sensory Impairments

Problems with the ability to receive information through the body's senses.

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Vision Loss

Degree of uncorrectable inability to see well.

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Hearing Disabilities

Degree of deafness; uncorrectable inability to hear well.

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Giftedness

Exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or talent.

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Acceleration Programs

Rapid promotion through advanced studies for students who are gifted or talented.

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Enrichment Programs

Programs in which assignments or activities are designed to broaden or deepen the knowledge of students who master classroom lessons quickly.

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Special Education

Programs that address the needs of students with mental, emotional, or physical disabilities.

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Public Law 94-142

Federal law enacted in 1975 requiring provision of special-education services to eligible students.

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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

P.L. 101-476, a federal law enacted in 1990 that changed the name of P.L. 94-142 and broadened services to adolescents with diabilities.

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Least Restrictive Environment

Provision in IDEA that requires students with disabilities to be educated alongside peers without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate.

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Mainstreaming or Inclusion

The temporal, instructional, and social integration of eligible children having exceptionalities with peers who do not have exceptionalities based on an ongoing, individually determined educational planning and programming process.

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Individualized Education Program (IEP)

A program tailored to the needs of a learner with exceptionalities.

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Collaboration

Process in which professionals work cooperatively to provide educational services.

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Response to Intervention

Policies in which struggling children are given intensive assistance and evaluated for possible special-education services only if they fail to respond.

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Full Inclusion

Arrangement whereby students who have disabilities or are at risk receive all their instruction in a general education setting; support services are brought to the student.