Chapter 12- Minerals and Energy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12- Minerals and Energy Deck (40):
1

exploration

search for known reserves (some types can traumatically effect enviro

2

Ore

mixture of minerals

3

mining

ore extraction & processing

4

overburden

material covering a known reserve -mostly soil, must take stuff off, store it, and then get what you want)

5

Smelting

roasting metal-rich fraction of ore to release S02

6

Steps in Mining

1) Exploration
2) development and extraction
3) processing
4) closure and reclamation

7

Impacts of Exploration

generally low, some habitat disturbances soil & water contamination, roads

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Impacts of extraction and processing

acid mine drainage, water and soil contamination, large scale habitat destruction, atmospheric contamination, acid rain (scrubbers in inside of smoke stack)

9

Closure and reclamation

continued water and soil contamination, landscape alteration, socio-economic impacts
-if not reclaimed properly can lead to life long problems with acid rain
-reclamation not always back to original state

10

Open pit mining

progressively larger and deeper pit, starts with first layer and then makes pit larger and deeper

11

Strip mining

strip dug out, waste filled into previous cut

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Undergrand mining

subsurface operation, go underground sometimes very dangerous due to potential gas build up

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Milling

crushing and grinding ores to separate the useful from non useful material- some use water

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Tailings

the non useful material that remains (big issues in mining)

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Re-newable (flow) Resources

renewed naturally

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Non-Renewable (Stock) resources

fixed in supply ex) oil, gas, coal

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Critical Zone

-can be harvested or exploited to exhaustion (renewable resources if used sustainably)
fish, forests, animals, soils, water, aquifers

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Non-critical zone

-resources that will not deplete due to exploitation or over-harvesting
ex) air, water, solar energy, tides, wind

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Consumed by use

oil, gas, coal

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Theoretically recoverable

all elemental minerals

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Recyclable

metallic minerals

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Canada is major exporter of...

gold, nickel, potash, copper, cement

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Enviro Challenges of Mining

Acid Mine drainage
SO2 emissions
Metal Toxicity
disruption of ecosystem
habitat degradation
disturb aquatic ecosystems
radioactive waste
hydroelectric dams ruining ecosystems

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Acid Mine Drainage

-most ore contains iron sulphides
-after processing, iron sulphides in tailings can oxidize to become sulphuric acid
-with precipitation, sulphuric acid can dissolve residual metals-> acidic drainage

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Sulphur Dioxide Emissions

-to recover metals, ore semlted (high heat) to remove sulphides
-major contributor to SO2 emissions

26

Mobile phones

-use 22 natural resources extracted from all over the world
-huge economic industry
-lots of copper in cell phones

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Canada in the World

Saskatchewan= largest producer of potash in the world
-most efficient mining in the world
Diavik Diamond Mine
-opened in 2003 after 1.3billion$ invested into the project

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Challenges of Mining in the North

1) Treaty 8 and 11 land claim negotiations
2) concerned aboriginals- about knowledge being used outside of its context
3) not one set of traditional knowledge, lots of different aboriginal groups

29

Enviro Impacts and Mitigations

Mining tailings- down stream water quality a concern, crushed rock put into Long Lake tailings impound, capacity is too small
-Barren-ground caribou- believed to have a small impact, but population down 5% since mine opened
-Water issues- changes due to lake drainage to facilitate opening the mine, contaminants, needs long term monitoring
-Fish- in 12 of 15 lakes, BHP compensated for fish loss, expected counterbalance due to net loss of fish habitats in the North

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Renewable Energy

-geothermal
-tidal
-wind
-wave
-biomass- uses waste from crops and burns it in rural areas and 3rd world countries
-solar

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Non-Renewale energy

-coal
-oil
-fuels
-natural gas
-nuclear fuels

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How to choose Energy resource?

1. Occurrence- confined to specific environment and location
2. Transferability- distance which energy can travel
3. Energy content- amount of useable energy
4. Reliability- uninterrupted availability
5. Storability- advantageous in case of unreliable source
6. Flexibility- greater variety of end uses
7. Safety & impact- risk to human health & enviro
8. Cleanliness & convenience- cleaner & convenient= better than dirty and cumbersome
9. Price- less expensive=desirable

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WInd Power Advantages

-renewable
-no toxic or radio active waste
-quiet
-not hazard to birds/wildlife
-2% of land use thus land can still be used for agriculture
-payment to land owners= income

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Wind Power Disadvantages

-inconsistent
-negative impact on landscape
-noise from large wind farms
-disrupt migratory routes
-loss of habitat
-disturbs frequency of sound waves used in animal communication

35

Solar Power Advantages

renewable
-free energy (after cost of infrastructure)
-payback time short
-can stand alone (good for isolated areas)
-decrease GHG emissions

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Solar Power Disadvantages

-cloudy= decrease capacity
-need large surface area
-aesthetic impact
-decrease area for farming

37

Athabasca oil sands

-failed to deter duck from tailings pond
-1 barrel= 4 tonnes of material extracted & 2-5 barrels of water
-air pollution
-^toxins
-fragmentation of boreal forest
-loss of wetlands & forest habitat
-dewatering aquifers
-water removed from athabasca river
-decrease fish population

38

Bitumen

various minerals that will burn

39

In situ recovery

usually done via stream-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD)

40

Nuclear Power

-14-15% of Canada's power
-Ontario=most dependent
-Storage of nuclear waste= problem
1) deep disposal- isolate waste
2) centralized on site storage- short term solution)
3) hybrid- combo of methods