Chapter 12 Neural Tissue (Nervous System) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Neural Tissue (Nervous System) Deck (360):
1

What is the master controlling and communication system of the body?

Nervous System

2

The Nervous system has 3 overlapping functions, what are they. 1) Sensory Input.....

1. Sensory Input
2. Integration
3. Motor Output

3

What do the letters S.A.M.E. represent?

Sensory=Afferent
Motor=Efferent

4

What is the absolute receiving end of the sensory neurons called, responsible for input?

Dendrites

5

Which function of the (3 overlapping functions) Nervous System, processes and interprets the incoming info from the sensory input?

Integration

6

Which of the 3 main functions of the Nervous system is responsible for gathering information from sensory receptors to monitor changes?

Sensory Input (Input=AFFERENT)

7

Sensory Input gathers info from sensory receptors inside and outside the body.
true or false?

true

8

Which of the 3 main functions in the Nervous System "effects a response" by activating or suppressing muscles, organs, glands, and tissues?

Motor Output

9

What are the muscles, organs, glands, and tissues that respond to Motor Output (Output=EFFERENT) called?

Effectors

10

Name the 2 Nervous Systems

Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System

11

What two areas of the body are the Central Nervous System?

*Brain
*Spinal Cord

12

What parts of the body are considered part of the Peripheral Nervous System?

All Neural Tissue outside of the CNS

13

What is another name for the Afferent Division?

Sensory

14

What is another name for the Efferent Division?

Motor

15

Name the 2 broad categories under the Afferent (Sensory) Division

* Somatic Afferent
* Visceral Afferent

16

Name the 3 parts of the body that the Somatic Afferent Sensory receptors come from.

* Skin
* Skeletal Muscle
* Joints

17

Name the 3 parts of the body that the Visceral Afferent Sensory receptors come from.

* Organs
* Tissues
* Smooth Muscle

18

What type of Sensory Neurons monitor the external environment and positions within it?
Visceral or Somatic?

Somatic Sensory Neurons

19

What type of Sensory Neurons monitor the internal environment and the status of other organ systems?
Visceral or Somatic?

Visceral Sensory Neurons

20

Which division, Afferent or Efferent, do the Special Sense Organs fall under?

Afferent (Sensory) Division

21

Name the 2 specific nervous systems that are the 2 broad categories found under the Efferent (Motor) Division

* Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
* Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

22

Name the voluntary nervous system found under the Efferent (Motor) Division

Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

23

Name the involuntary nervous system found under the Efferent (Motor) Division

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

24

Where would you find reflexes, on the divisions of the nervous system chart? under ANS or SNS?

SNS (Somatic Nervous System)

25

The Afferent Sensory division of the Nervous System sends info to the CNS true or false?

true

26

The Efferent division of the Nervous System reacts to the information sent to it all the way from the CNS.
true or false?

true

27

Which division toward the bottom of the Division of Nervous System chart, under the Efferent Output side would be considered the "fight or flight"?

Sympathetic Division

28

What's another name or term for the Parasympathetic Division found under the Efferent side of the Division of Nervous System chart?

"rest and digest"

29

output=Efferent= _____

motor

30

What three elements (tissues etc.) make up the CNS (spinal cord and brain) ?

* Neural Tissues
* Connective Tissues
* Blood Vessels

31

To "process and coordinate" is the function of which nervous system, CNS or PNS?

CNS
Central Nervous System

32

Name cranial nerve I

Olfactory

33

Name the II Cranial nerve

Optic

34

Name the III Cranial nerve

Oculomotor

35

Name the IV cranial nerve

Trochlear

36

Name the V cranial nerve

Trigeminal

37

Name the VI cranial nerve

Abducens

38

Name the VII cranial nerve

Facial

39

Name the VIII cranial nerve

Vestibulocochlear

40

Name the IX cranial nerve

Glossopharyngeal

41

Name the X cranial nerve

Vagus

42

Name the XI cranial nerve

Accessory

43

Name the XII cranial nerve

Hypoglossal

44

What letter do the first 3 cranial nerves all start with?
( I, II, III )

O
( Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor )

45

What letter do cranial nerves IV and V bot start with?

T
( Trochlear, Trigeminal )

46

I will give the first letter of each Cranial nerve in order, fill out the rest
I O________
II O____
III O_________
IV T________
V T_________
VI A_______
VII F_____
VIII V________________
IX G_______________
X V____
XI A________
XII H__________

Olfactory ( I )
Optic ( II )
Oculomotor ( III )
Trochlear ( IV )
Trigeminal ( V )
Abducens ( VI )
Facial ( VII )
Vestibulocochlear ( VIII )
Glossopharyngeal ( IX )
Vagus ( X )
Accessory ( XI )
Hypoglossal ( XII )

47

What two things do the Peripheral nerves carry into the PNS?

* sensory information
* Motor commands

48

What type of nerves are connected to (associated with) the Brain?

Cranial nerves

49

What type of nerves are connected to (associated with) the Spinal Cord?

Spinal nerves

50

How many Cranial nerves are there?

12

51

There are 5 sections of Spinal nerves down the spine, name all 5 sections from top to bottom
( hint: just like the vertebra )

* Cervical
* Thoracic
* Lumbar
* Sacral
* Coccygeal

52

There are 8 Cervical Nerves ( C1- C8 ), how many Thoracic Nerves are there?

12
( T1- T12 )

53

How many Lumbar Nerves and Sacral nerves are there?
( hint: same number in both )

5 Lumbar 5 Sacral
( L1-L5 ) ( S1-S5)

54

What is the name for the specialized cells that are the structural units of the nervous system?
( easy, don't overthink)

Neuron

55

Which are smaller and more numerous, Neurons or Neuroglia ( Glial Cells ) ?

Neuroglia (Glial Cells)

56

What is the major Biosynthetic center of the neuron called?

Cell Body (Soma or Perikaryon)

57

How many years can a healthy Neuron live?

over 100 years

58

What must a Neuron do, Anaerobic or Aerobic Respiration and why?

Aerobic Respiration
It needs a constant supply of Oxygen (blood flow)

59

Are Neurons Mitotic or Largely Amitotic?
( can they divide? )

Largely Amitotic
( very few exceptions )

60

A Neuron has a VERY high Metabolic rate. ( ATP )
true or false?

true

61

What is the name for the terminal branches of the axon?

Telodendria

62

What is responsible to support, nourish, and protect, regulate the environment of the Neuron?

Neuroglia (Glial cells)

63

Neurons communicate with what type of impulses?

electrical (nerve) impulses

64

Where are sensory receptors found on the neuron?

the dendritic end of a sensory neuron

65

Name the 4 parts (regions) of a multipolar neuron

* dendrites
* Cell body (soma)
* axon
* telodendria

66

Dendrites send impulses ______ the cell body,
Axons take impulses ____ from the cell body

toward
away

67

The cytoskeleton of neuron cell body is made of neurofilaments (intermediate filaments). What do you call a bundle of neurofilaments?

neurofibrils

68

What do you call the microtubules of the neuron cell body that extend into both the dendrites and axon and assist in moving materials between cell body and axon?

neurotubules

69

Neurons need a lot of energy, so which organelle would they have a lot of?

Mitochondria

70

If the term Nissl body/Nissl substance is the part of the cell body responsible for protein systhesis, what organelles from Bio 189 class are they a combination of?

Rough ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum
and free ribosomes

71

Where would you find transport vesicles in the cell body of a neuron?
(a little review)

Golgi Apparatus

72

Where are most cell bodies found?
In the CNS or the PNS?

CNS ( central nervous system)

73

What would you call clusters of cell bodies in the CNS?

Nuclei
( remember nucleus is only 1 cluster )

74

What would you call clusters of cell bodies in the PNS?

Ganglia (plural)
Ganglion (sing.)

75

Dendrites are highly branched providing lots of surface area.
true or false?

true

76

What is the name for the thorny appendages (bulbous or spiky) that are found at the end of each branch of the dendrite?

Dendritic Spines

77

What are the short-distance electrical signals of the dendrite (and soma) called?

Graded Potentials

78

Name the two "processes" of a neuron

Dendrites and axons

79

Which process of the neuron is capable of generating and propagating an AP away from the cell body?

Axon

80

What is the name for the cytoplasm of the axon?

Axoplasm

81

What is the plasma membrane of the axon called?

Axolemma

82

What is the name for the terminal branches of the axon?

Telodendria

83

What are the side branches along the length of the axon called?

Axon Collaterals

84

Synaptic End Bulbs are the secretory components of the neuron and are part of a synapse. Where are the Synaptic End Bulbs found?

at the very ends of the Telodendria

85

What do you call ANY neuronal process that extends from the cell body?

Nerve Fiber

86

What type of transport is responsible for the movement of mitochondria, lipids, proteins, and other organelles to and from the cell body of a neuron?

Axoplasmic Transport

87

Are there microtubules spanning the entire length of the axon?

yes

88

Which type of Axoplasmic transport relies heavily on Microtubules? Anterograde Movement or Retrograde movement?

Anterograde Movement

89

Name the motor protein that travel along the microtubules toward the axonal terminal, carrying out Anterograde Movement?

Kinesin

90

In what direction does Retrograde Movement go?

Toward Cell Body (backwards flow)

91

Name the motor protein associated with Retrograde Movement

Dynein

92

Kinesin are the "tiny feet" that carry stuff along the microtubules to the synaptic end bulb in which type of Axoplasmic Transport?

Anterograde Movement

93

Dynein does the opposite of Kinesin, it transports things (recycled organelles, etc.) found in the synaptic end bulb back to the ____ ____.
(even viruses, ex: rabies virus)

cell body

94

Which is the receptive region, denrites or axon terminals?

dendrites

95

Which is the secretory region, dendrites or axon terminals?

axon terminals (synaptic end bulb)

96

Which neuron sends the message, the presynaptic cell or the postsynaptic cell?

Presynaptic Cell

97

what can receive a message from the Presynaptic Cell?

* Another neuron
* Another cell type (ex. neuron to muscle cell, neuron to gland)

98

What do we call the Cell that receives the message from the Presynaptic Cell?

Postsynaptic Cell

99

What 3 areas of a neuron can receive a message from a presynaptic cell?

* dendrite
* Cell body
* along length of axon

100

What is it called when a neuron is the presynaptic cell and a Muscle cell is the postsynaptic cell?
(a neuron to Muscle cell synapse)

Neuromuscular Junction

101

What is it called when a neuron is the presynaptic cell and a Gland (secretory) cell is the postsynaptic cell?
(a neuron to gland (secretory cell) synapse)

Neuroglandular Junction

102

Name the small gap that separates the presynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane?

Synaptic Cleft

103

What do we call the signaling chemicals that are released into the synaptic cleft?

Neurotransmitters

104

After being broken down by enzymes, some Neurotransmitters (NT) are shuttled back into where to be reassembled?

Synaptic Terminal (Synaptic end bulb)

105

Some NT are reassembled in the Synaptic terminal after being broken down by enzymes, what happens to the others?

diffuse away

106

Name the two common types of Neuron- to -Neuron Synapse

*Axodendritic
*Axosomatic

107

You classify something structurally as Multipolar, Bipolar, or Unipolar depending on the number of processes extending from the cell body.
true or false?

true

108

What is the rarest type of Neuron? (multi, bi, or unipolar)

Bipolar neurons

109

All Somatic Motor Neurons are _____polar neurons

multipolar neurons

110

Which type of neurons are most common in the body?

multipolar neurons

111

Which type of neurons are common in the CNS?

multipolar neurons

112

Other than the special sensory organs, the Sensory Afferent (Input) Neurons are all which type of Neuron (polar wise)?

Unipolar neurons (Pseudounipolar)

113

The special sensory organs (sight, smell, hearing) have which type of neurons? (rarest)

Bipolar neurons

114

Which type of neurons are the sensory neurons found in the PNS?

Unipolar neurons

115

Which type of neurons have the fused dendrites and axon, and you'll find the cell body off to one side?

Unipolar neuron

116

Which is the multipolar Purkinje cell? The Cerebellum or Cerebrum?

Cerebellum

117

Which is the multipolar Pyramidal cell? The Cerebellum or Cerebrum?

Cerebrum

118

Multipolar, Bipolar, and Unipolar are all Structural Classifications of Neurons.
true or False?

true

119

Name the 3 Functional Classifications of neurons

* Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
* Motor (Efferent) Neurons
* Interneurons (Association neurons)

120

Most Interneurons are located within the CNS.
true or false?

true

121

Which of the functional classifications of neurons, outnumber all other types combined?

Interneurons

122

If Sensory (Afferent) = Input
and Motor (Efferent) = Output, then
Interneurons = ___________

Integration

123

Which type of neurons lie between sensory neurons and motor neurons in the neural pathway?

Interneurons

124

Almost all interneurons are what structural classification of neuron?

multipolar
(but very diverse in size and fiber branching patterns)

125

In a Unipolar Neuron, theres only one process and the cell body appears to be off to the side dividing the axon into 2 parts, what are these two parts (processes) referred to as?

* peripheral process
* central process

126

What is another name for the specialized cells of the neuron?

Separate Cells

127

Name the 3 types of Sensory Receptors.

* Interoceptors
* Exteroceptors
* Proprioceptors

128

Which type of Sensory Receptor monitors position and movement (skeletal muscles and joints)?

Proprioceptors

129

Which type of Sensory Receptors monitor internal systems and internal senses?
(what's going on inside)

Interoceptors

130

Which type of Sensory Receptors monitor External senses (touch, temp., pressure) and Distance Senses (sight, smell, hearing, equilibrium)?
(what's going on outside)

Exteroceptors

131

What type of senses would taste, deep pressure,and pain be considered?

internal senses

132

What is the Nociceptor (naked, non-encapsulated) dendrite associated with?

pain

133

Where are merkel cells found?

stratum basale

134

How many different types of Neuroglia (Glial Cells) are there?

6 total
4 in the CNS and 2 in the PNS

135

Name the 4 Glial cell (Neuroglia) types found in the CNS

1. Ependymal Cells
2. Astrocytes
3. Microglia
4. Oligodendrocytes

136

Name the 2 Glial cell types (Neuroglia) of the PNS

1. Satellite Cells (Amphicytes)
2. Schwann Cells (Neurolemmocytes)

137

Which type of Neuroglia line the central canal of the spinal cord and ventricles (enlarged chambers in the brain)?
(form an epithelium called ependyma)

Ependymal Cells

138

What fills the passageways or spaces in the CNS?

CSF- Cerebral Spinal Fluid

139

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid Plexus

140

What do we call the site of initiation of Action Potential?

Trigger Zone

141

Do the myelin sheaths help the propagation of Action Potential go faster or slower?

faster because the AP jumps

142

Do some ependymal cells have highly-branched processes (some with cilia and microvilli that circulate CSF)?

yes

143

Which of the 4 Glial cells of the CNS are the least numerous, remain in the CNS and are phagocytic?

Microglia

144

What forms the Blood-CSF barrier?

the epithelium and tight junctions of Ependyma

145

Which of the 4 CNS neuroglia is the most abundant?

Astrocytes

146

Which of the 4 CNS neuroglia improves the function of neurons by wrapping axons with a myelin sheath (gelly-rolls around axon)

Oligodendrocytes

147

Myelin insulates myelinated axons and make nerves appear white, so the regions dominated by myelinated axons are called _____ ______.

White Matter (of the CNS)

148

Areas containing cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons make up the ____ Matter of the CNS

Gray

149

Which of the 4 neuroglia of the CNS wrap around blood capillaries and maintain the Blood-Brain Barrier?

Astrocytes

150

Which of the 4 neuroglia of the CNS, monitors what the neuron will interact with and controls the interstitial environment of the neuron?

Astrocytes

151

Which of the 4 glial cells of the CNS, may play a role in learning and development by influencing formation of neuronal synapses?

Astrocytes

152

What are the gaps between the myelinated segments of the axon called, the area where axons may branch?

Nodes of Ranvier (Nodes)

153

What are the myelinated segments of the axon referred to as?

Internodes

154

What is another name for Satellite cell (one of the neuroglia of PNS)?

Amphicytes

155

Satellite Cells regulate the environment around the neuron like astrocytes do.
true or false?

true

156

Schwann cells are functionally similar to oligodendrocytes because they also do what?

"gelly-roll" around the axon forming a myelin sheath

157

What is another name for a Schwann cell?

Neurolemma cells, or Neurolemmocytes

158

What does NGF stand for?

Nerve Growth factor

159

What do you call the plasma (cell) membrane of a Schwann cell?

Neurolemma

160

A Series of which type of PNS glial cell is required to enclose an axon along it's entire length?

Schwann cells

161

Which of the two PNS glial cells, surrounds cell bodies with ganglia?

Satellite cells (Amphicytes)

162

Satellite cells and Schwann cells (which form myelin) surround neurons in the ___

PNS

163

Myelin is a layered material composed of ____________, cholesterol, and protein.

phospholipids

164

Name the two major types of Channel Proteins (Transport proteins)

* Leakage Channels
* Gated Channels

165

Which of the two Channel Protein types is a Passive channel? Which is an Active Channel?

*Leakage Channel= passive
*Gated Channel=active

166

Which type of Channel needs no stimulant and randomly opens and closes?

Leakage Channel

167

What two things do leakage channels allow to flow out and down their concentration gradient?

Na+
K+

168

Which leakage channel is more widely distributed throughout the plasma membrane, Na+ leakage channels or K+ leakage channels?

K+ Leakage channels

169

What do gated channels require that is different from leakage channels?

they open and close in response to a stimulus

170

What is the Resting Membrane potential of a typical neuron?

-70 mV

171

What is the Resting Membrane potential of a skeletal muscle?

-90mV

172

Name the 3 classes of (different types of) Gated Channels

* Ligand (Chemically) -Gated Channels
* Voltage-Gated Channels
* Mechanically-Gated Channels

173

Which type of Gated Channel opens or closes when a specific chemical binds? (example, ACh binding to ACh receptor at the neuromusclular junction)

Ligand-Gated Channel

174

Which specific type of Ligand-Gated Channel opened when ACh was binding with the ACh receptor?

Ligand-Gated cation channel

175

Name the 3 different types of Ligand-gated Channels

* Ligand-Gated cation channel
* Ligand-Gated K+ Channel
* Ligand-Gated Cl- channel

176

Where are Ligand-Gated Channels most abundantly found?

on the dendrites and cell body of neurons (the site of most synapses)

177

What word is used to describe the flowing of particles or substances out of the cell?

Efflux

178

What word is used to describe the flowing of particles or substances into the cell?

Influx

179

Voltage-gated Na+ Channels have 2 gates that function independently, what are they called?

* Activation Gate
* Inactivation Gate

180

The Inactivation Gate opens at resting membrane potential: -70mV and closes at: ___mV

+30mV

181

Name the 3 separate types of Voltage-Gated Channels

*Voltage-Gated Na+ channel
*Voltage-Gated K+
*Voltage-gated Ca2+

182

What type of channels open or close in response to changes in the transmembrane potential?

Voltage-Gated channels

183

What type of Gated channels open or closes in response to (distortion of the membrane) touch, pressure, vibration or stretching?

Mechanically-Gated Channels

184

Which type of Channel opens due to a change in membrane potential?

Voltage-Gated Channel

185

Which type of channel will open due to a chemical stimulus?

Ligand-Gated Channel

186

Which type of channel opens and closes randomly?

Leakage Channel

187

What type of Channel is found in the axons of all types of neurons?

Voltage-Gated Channels

188

What types of (Ion) Channels are found in nearly all cells, including dendrites, cell bodies, and axons of all types of neurons?

Leakage Channels

189

Ligand-Gated channels are found on dendrites of some sensory neurons (pain receptors), and dendrites and cell bodies of interneurons and motor neurons.
true or false?

true

190

All neural activities begin with a change in the _______ ________ _________ of a neuron.

resting membrane potential

191

What is the resting membrane potential of a typical neuron?

~ -70mV

192

Local potential is just another way of saying _______ potential

Graded Potential

193

What is the long-distance signal that is associated with the axon of a neuron?

Action Potential

194

What is the signal associated with the dendrites and soma of a neuron that is a short distance signal?

Graded Potential

195

Any stimulus that opens a chemically gated channel produces a ______ potential.

Graded Potential

196

Name the electrical signal that decreases with distance from the stimulus and causes a temporary, localized, short-lived change in the resting potential. It is also essential in initiating an Action Potential

Graded Potential (Local Potential)

197

Name the electrical impulse that is propagated along the surface of an axon or sarcolemma (excitable membranes)

Action Potential (AP)

198

AP travels along the axon to one or more synapses.
true or false?

true

199

Does Action Potential diminish as it moves away from the source of the stimulus like graded potential does?

no

200

The place we first produce an Action Potential is called the _______ ____.

Trigger Zone (TZ)

201

All living cells have voltages across their plasma membranes, what are these referred to as?

Resting Membrane Potential
(Transmembrane Potential)

202

What do you call the transport protein that generates voltage across a plasma membrane of a cell?

Electrogenic Pump
(Example: Na+-K+ ATPase pump)

203

Two combined forces, collectively called the Electrochemical Gradient, drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane. What two things make up this gradient?

* A chemical gradient
* An electrical gradient

204

What is a chemical gradient?

the ion's concentration gradient (diffusion)

205

What is an electrical gradient?

the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement (electromagnetism)

206

What is the shorter way to refer to intracellular fluid?

cytosol

207

What does ECF stand for?

Extracellular Fluid

208

Where is there greater amounts of Na+, in the ECF or the cytosol?

ECF

209

Where is there greater amounts of K+, in the ECF or the cytosol?

cytosol (intracellularly)

210

Where is there greater amounts of Cl-, in the ECF or the cytosol?

ECF

211

Which has greater membrane permeability, K+ or Na+?

K+ because K+ leakage channels are far more common than Na+ leakage channels

212

Which Active transport pump, contributes to the voltage potential across the plasma membrane?
(hint: 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in)

Electrogenic Na+-K+ ATPase Pump

213

What is the main thing that makes a membrane selectively permeable?

Hydrophobic phospholipid bilayer

214

Which Active transport pump is found in the plasma membrane of all cells?

Na+-K+ ATPase Pump

215

Can the Resting Membrane Potential for a cell change or is it set?

it will not change, it is set

216

Changes in Membrane Potential reflects the movement of ________ charges entering or leaving the cell through gated channels

positive charges

217

more negative= more _________

polarized

218

What is it called when the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane becomes LESS negative (moves closer to zero) than when at resting membrane potential?

Depolarization
(ex: -70mV -----> -65mV)

219

What do we call the process of restoring resting membrane potential?
(ex: -65mV-----------> -70mV)

Repolarization

220

What is it called when the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane becomes MORE negative (moves even further from zero) than when at the resting membrane potential?
(ex: -70mV--------> -80mV)

Hyperpolarization

221

less negative= ____ polarized

less

222

What type of stimulus is a neurotransmitter?

a Ligand stimulus

223

What type of stimulus is pressure?

a Mechanical stimulus

224

Which channels are responsible for the production of graded potentials, Leakage Channels or a stimulus opening a Gated Channel?

Gated Channel

225

In a resting membrane, the opening of Na+ channels would cause what, hyperpolarization or depolarization?

depolarization because sodium has a positive charge, and has greater concentration in the ECF the membrane would become less negative so less polarized

226

In a resting membrane, the opening of K+ channels would cause what?

Hyperpolarization, the high concentration of K+ inside the cell would then flow out and make the membrane even more negative, so even more polarized

227

With Graded potential, the greater the strength of the stimulus, the more the membrane potential changes and the further the current flows.
true or false?

true

228

What is something called when it has a gradual decrease in the stimuli and response along the pathway of conduction?
(graded potential)

Decremental Conduction

229

What can cause the frequency of Action Potential to rise?

a strong stimulus

230

When a neuron is easily excited by successive depolarization events, it is said to be what?

Facilitated

231

The more ___ we have, the more Ligand-Gated and Mechanically- Gated channels opening.

Na+

232

Action potential is all or nothing, you either generate an AP or you don't.
true or false?

true

233

What do you call the exact right amount of stimulus needed to generate an AP?

threshold

234

Once threshold is reached, AP is triggered
true or false?

true

235

A dust particle landing on your arm and you don't feel it, is an example of what type of stimulus?

subthreshold stimulus

236

When you touch something with your finger, this is an example of which type of stimulus?

Threshold Stimulus

237

When you get hit on the thumb by a hammer, this is an example of which type of stimulus?

Suprathreshold stimulus

238

How many mV is a threshold typically between?

-60mV and -55mV

239

Does the magnitude of AP ever change?

no

240

What has to happen with the activation and inactivation gates in order for Na+ to move?

BOTH gates must open

241

Which type of Voltage-Gated channel is slow to close?

Voltage-Gated K+

242

Name the 4 steps in the Formation of an AP

1.) Depolarization to Threshold
2.) Activation of Sodium Channels and Rapid Depolarization
3.) Inactivation of Sodium Channels and Activation of Potassium Channels
4.) Closing of Potassium Channel

243

An Action Potential is generated when the voltage reaches _________ level.

threshold

244

The Voltage-Gated Channels have an Activation Gate and Inactivation gate, true or false?

true

245

What causes the chart to rise up past threshold all the way up to +30?
depolarization, repolarization, or hyperpolarization?

Depolarization
(an increase of positives in the cell)

246

Once the Membrane potential reaches +30 at the very top, _______-_____ __ channels open and positive (+) charge leaves neuron.

Voltage-gated K+

247

Membrane potential starts going back down toward resting membrane potential once it reaches +30
What is this called, depolarization, repolarization, or hyperpolarization

Repolarization

248

What causes hyperpolarization?

When the membrane potential is more negative than the resting Membrane Potential

249

Na+ influx drives the interior of the cell membrane up to about +30 mV. The process to this point is called what?

depolarization

250

When the membrane potential reaches -90mV, everything is closed and the ___ is over.

AP (Action Potential)

251

When does the Inactivation Gate of Voltage-Gated Na+ channels open and when does it close?
(mV's)

opens -70mV
closes +30mV

252

When does the Activation Gate of Voltage-Gated Na+ channels open and when does it close?

opens -55mV
closes -70mV

253

When do Voltage-Gated K+ channels open and when do they close?
(remember they begin to close and close completely at different times)

opens +30mV
being to close -70mV
completely close -90mV

254

At threshold potential, what is happening with the activation gate and inactivation gate of the Voltage-gated Na+ channel?

both gates are open at threshold

255

Propagation of Action Potential goes in one direction only.
true or false?

true

256

What are the 2 methods of propagating an action potential?

1. Continuous propagation (unmyelinated axons)
2. Saltatory propagation (myelinated axons)

257

When is there a Continuous propagation of AP, with myelinated or unmyelinated axons?

unmyelinated axons
(must propagate entire axolemma one segment at a time)

258

When is there a Saltatory propagation of AP, with myelinated or unmyelinated axons?

myelinated axons

259

Which type of AP propagation occurs more rapidly, continuous propagation or saltatory propagation?

saltatory propagation

260

In which type of propagation does the AP jump from node to node?

saltatory propagation

261

When the AP develops, the Na+ enters into the cell, what spreads the Na+ away from the open voltage-gated channels it just came through producing a graded depolarization that brings the next segment to threshold?

Local current

262

It takes 2 ms for the AP peak to reach the recording electrode.
true or false?

true

263

Graded depolarization of Na+ causes ______ _________ to develop

Action potential
(once enough Na+ is there)

264

Action Potentials are always depolarizing.
true or false?

true

265

Graded Potentials are always either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing.
true or false?

true

266

Graded potentials are bi-directional, where as Action Potential only go ___ ___.

one way

267

Name the 2 types of channels you could find associated with the dendrites (receiving end) before the trigger zone?

* Mechanically-gated
* Ligand-gated

268

Name the type of channel you would find on the axolemma after the trigger zone

Voltage-gated

269

Which type of channels does Action Potential occur with?

Voltage-gated

270

With graded potentials, the amount of depolarization or hyperpolarization depends on the intensity of the _______

stimulus

271

All stimuli that exceed threshold produce identical Action Potential.
true or false?

true

272

Does AP decrease in strength as it propagates along the membrane surface?

no

273

Which type of impulse has a refractory period, graded potential or action potential?

Action Potential

274

Where do Graded Potentials occur?

in most plasma membranes

275

Action Potentials occur only in excitable membranes of specialized cells such as _______ and ______ cells.

neurons and muscle cells

276

Does a graded potentials effect on a membrane potential decrease the further it gets from the stimulation site?

yes

277

The axon diameter, the degree of myelination, and the temperature all impact what?

speed of propagation

278

The larger the diameter of an axon, the greater the surface area, the faster the ___________.

propagation

279

Which group of nerve fiber (A,B,or C) am I describing?
*largest diameter: 5-20 um
*thick myelin sheaths
*propagation speed up to 120m/sec- 150 m/sec (~300 mph)
* mostly somatic sensory neurons (skin, joints, skeletal muscle
*light touch light pressure, pain & some temp.
*Somatic motor neurons

Type A Fibers

280

Which group of nerve fiber (A,B, or C) am I describing?
* intermediate diameter 2-4 um
* lightly myelinated
* prop. speed: 15 m/sec-18 m/sec (~40 mph)
* mostly visceral sensory neurons
* constitute all the pre-ganglionic axons of the ANS
(visceral motor neurons)

Type B Fibers

281

Which group of nerve fiber (A,B, or C) am I describing?
* smallest diameter:

Type C Fibers

282

The _____ the temperature, the slower the propagation

lower

283

Name the 2 varieties of synapses

Electrical Synapses
Chemical Synapses

284

Which type of synapse is the most common, electrical or chemical?

Chemical Synapse

285

Which type of synapse relies on Neurotransmitters?

Chemical Synapse

286

Which type of synapse is very rare in the CNS and PNS
-heart muscle
(example: eye and brain)

Electrical Synapse

287

Which type of synapse is used in most neuron-to-neuron synapses and all neuron-to-effector synapses?

Chemical Synapses

288

When talking about a presynaptic neuron synapsing with an effector, where does this happen, the CNS or PNS?

PNS
(only neuron-to-neuron synapses happen in the CNS)

289

When referring to a neuromuscular junction, which type of synapse are we referring to?

a chemical neuron-to-effector synapse

290

Give examples of what they are referring to when they say neuron synapsing with an effector (postsynaptic cell). What is the effector?

a gland or muscle cell

291

Which type of neurotransmitters promote the generation of AP by causing depolarization?
excitatory or inhibitory?

Excitatory neurotransmitters (+NT)

292

Which type of neurotransmitters suppress the generation of AP's by causing hyperpolarization?

Inhibitory neurotransmitters (-NT)

293

Neurotransmitters are chemicals, which type of channels would they use?

Ligand-gated

294

What two things could a postsynaptic part of a synapse be?

*neuron
*effector cell (ex: gland or muscle)

295

If depolarization reaches threshold during a chemical synapse, AP is initiated on the ____________ ____.

postsynaptic cell

296

Whether a neurotransmitter ends up being excitatory or inhibitory (the effects of a NT) depends on what?

the NT receptor

297

What is the only type of synaptic activity that happens solely in the CNS?

neuron-synapse-neuron

298

Which type of rare synapse is the heart muscle a good example for?

Electrical Synapse

299

What causes a greater number of synaptic vesicles to release their contents during a chemical synapse?

a higher impulse frequency (a stronger stimulus)

300

What are EPSP and IPSP?

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)

301

Which type of postsynaptic potential increases a postsynaptic neurons ability to generate an AP (brings it closer to threshold)?

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)

302

Which type of postsynaptic potential results from the opening of ligand-gated channels (ex: cation/ Na+)?

EPSP

303

Graded depolarization caused by NT binding to postsynaptic membrane receptor, causes which type of postsynaptic Potential?

EPSP (Excitatory)

304

Graded hyperpolarization has to do with which Postsynaptic Potential?

Inhibitory
(IPSP)

305

Which type of postsynaptic potential reduces a postsynaptic neuron's ability to generate an AP (less likely to "fire")?

IPSP

306

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) results from the opening of which types of ligand gated channels?

K+ , Cl-

307

Name the two types of NT receptors

* Inotropic Receptor
* Metabotropic Receptor

308

Which type of NT receptor has a NT binding site + Ligand gated channel?

Inotropic Receptor

309

Which type of NT receptor has G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs)?

Metabotropic Receptors

310

What type of viral infection of the nervous system is referred to as "madness" and is transferred to humans by getting bit by infected mammals. It causes brain inflammation, delirium, and death?

Rabies

311

Name the demyelinating autoimmune disease that can cause blindness, and problems controlling muscles (weakness/paralysis) speech problems, and urinary incontinence?

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

312

What is a Neurotoxin?

anything that's poisonous or destructive to nervous tissue

313

What viral infection is caused by the virus that causes chicken pox, that lays dormant and normally comes out in those over 50 with weak immune systems?

Shingles

314

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) destroys _____ _______ so they don't feel pain. Children are more likely to get it

nerve endings

315

Some nerve cells communicate with eachother by secreting molecules called neurotransmitters.
true or false

true

316

What are the 3 ways to terminate neurotransmitter activity?
(which one depends on the type of NT)

* Degradation (by enzyme)
* Re-uptake
* Diffuses away

317

When a neurotransmitter diffuses away, what is it diffusing away from?

the synapse

318

What type of Glial cells are involved in re-uptake of NT?
(1 of the 4 neuroglia of the CNS)

Astroctyes

319

Of the 3 functional classifications of Neurons (sensory, motor, and interneurons), which one transmits impulses from sensory receptors in the skin or internal organs toward or into the CNS?

Sensory (Afferent) Neurons

320

Almost all _______ neurons are unipolar.

Sensory

321

All Motor neurons are __________ neurons

multipolar

322

Which of the 3 functional classifications of neurons, carries impulses AWAY from the CNS to effectors?

Motor (efferent) Neurons

323

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) is associated with graded hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane, and Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) is associated with graded ______________ caused by NT binding to postsynaptic membrane receptors.

depolarization

324

Where would you find the enzymes that will break apart (degradation) the NT?

at the postsynaptic membrane or in the synaptic cleft

325

What are the two types of summation?

* Spatial Summation
* Temporal Summation

326

Which type of Summation involves multiple synapses that are active simultaneously?

Spatial Summation

327

Which type of Summation has a huge number of NT being released altogether that dramatically increases depolarization at the trigger zone?

Spatial Summation

328

During Spatial Summation, multiple sources of stimulation occur at the same time but at _________ locations. _____ _______ spread the depolarizing effects and areas of overlap experience the combined effects

different
local currents

329

Which type of summation occurs on a membrane when it receives two depolarizing stimuli from the same source in rapid succession?The effects of the second stimulus are added to those of the first.

Temporal Summation

330

Which type of Summation, Spatial or Temporal, transmits impulses in a "rapid-fire" order, and bursts of neurotransmitters are released in quick succession?

Temporal Summation

331

Nearly how many substances act as Neurotransmitters?

~100

332

What is known as the best-studied Neurotransmitter?

Acetylcholine

333

Is Acetylcholine Inhibitory or Excitatory?
(hint: trick question)

Both
Inhibitory effect (via metabotropic AChR)
Excitatory effect (via Ionotropic AChR)

334

What enzyme degrades Acetylcholine?

Acetylcholine esterase (AChE)

335

Acetylcholine is involved in all ______-__-______ synapses in the PNS

neuron-to-neuron

336

Name the two excitatory Amino Acids
(produced by most excitatory neurons in CNS)

* Glutamate
* Aspartate

337

Name the two inhibitory Amino Acids

* Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
* Glycine

338

Which Amino Acid is found only in the CNS and is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter?

GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)

339

_______ is involved in about half of the inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord, the rest use GABA.

Glycine

340

Biogenic amines are produced by _______ in the CNS

neurons

341

Catecholamines and Indolamines are the two groups of ________ amines.

Biogenic

342

List the 3 Catecholamines.
(you've heard of these, 2 are abrev. as NE and Epi)

* Norepinephrine (NE)
* Epinephrine (Epi)
* Dopamine

343

Name the two Indolamines:
(you've heard of these)

* Serotonin
* Histamine

344

A Neurotransmitter containing 3-40 amino acids is called what?

A Neuropeptide

345

You can find Neuropeptides in both CNS and PNS.
true or false?

true

346

What do Neuropeptides bind to?

metabotropic receptors (excitatory or inhibitory actions)

347

Can Neuropeptides function as hormones that regulate physiological responses in the body?

yes

348

There are two types of neurotransmitters, what are they?

excitatory and inhibitory

349

What is the name for the complicated networks that organize billions of neurons?

Neural Circuits

350

Which type of Neural Circuit has one input and many outputs and is known as an amplifying circuit
ex: a single neuron in the brain activating 100 or more motor neurons in the spinal cord and thousands of skeletal muscle

Diverging circuit

351

Which type of neural circuit has many inputs and one output, and is known as a concentrating circuit?
Example: different sensory stimuli can all elicit the same memory

Converging circuit

352

What type of circuit is being referred to when you have a signal traveling through a chain of neurons, each feeding back to previous neurons, also known as an oscillating circuit. Also controls rhythmic activity (breathing, sleep-wake cycle, and repetitive motor activities)

Reverberating circuit

353

Last type of neural circuit listed. Involved in solving things like mathematical calculations. Signal stimulates neurons arranged in parallel arrays that eventually converge on a single output cell. What is it?

Parallel after-discharge circuit

354

What 3 things can modify the effects of a neurotransmitter?

* Substances already present in body
* Drugs
* Toxins

355

What do you call an agent that binds to receptors and mimics or enhances the effects of a NT?

agonist

356

What do you call an agent that binds to and blocks NT receptors?

antagonist

357

Cocaine produces euphoria by ________ transporters for dopamine reuptake

blocking

358

What is the bodies natural pain killers?

Opioid peptides

359

Which type of NT (- or +) inhibitory or excitatory, open Ligand gated K+ and Ligand gated Cl- channels?

-NT (inhibitory)

360

Which type of NT (- or +) inhibitory or excitatory, open Ligand gated Na+ channels?

+NT (excitatory)