Flashcards in Chapter 12 New Imperialism Deck (64):
the domination by one country of the political economic, or cultural life of another country or region
aggressive expansion in the 1870's-1914
the major motives of imperialism
-spread culture, customs, nationalism
-vast empire building, power
-trade new markets, natural resources
-Christian belief that it was their duty
-soldiers, naval bases, military outposts, etc.
why did imperialism spread so quick?
-weakness of non-western states
-facing criticism at home
What is direct rule and who practices it?
France, a country sends officials and soldiers to administrate colonies
What is indirect rue and who practiced it?
Britain, kept local rulers in place but were still in charge
local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European adivisors
sphere of influence
an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges
the control of one nation by transported people of another nation, thereby setting up colonies in a new land
5 stages of European exposure into Africa
-the slave trade
who was the first country to explore Africa?
What is the slave trade?
the use of African people for economic profit
Mungo Park & Sir Richard Burton
explored great rivers such as the Niger, Nile, and Congo
-located Lake Victoria and named it after his queen
explored Zambezi River, where he got lost
Henry M. Stanley
-went to find livingstone
-found him in Congo
-sent by King Leopold II
what was the goal of the missionaries
spread Christianity, agriculture, and education
What is the Berlin conference?
a conference held in Berlin to ensure that there will not be a war over Africa
learn western ways but maintain African culture (ex. Britain, Belgium, Germany)
being a part of the European culture (ex. France)
12 reasons for new imperialism
-bankers invest profit
-outlet for population
-ship bases for coal and other supplies
-empires increased prestige
-spread western civilization
-decline of older civilizations
-superior weapons and transportation
3 great Muslim empires of the 1500s
Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals
Who led the struggle to reform Muslim practices?
Usman dan Fadio
Savior of Faith
Which countries tried to claim land from the Ottoman Empire?
France, Russia, Britain, and later Germany
rulers of the Ottoman Turkish Empire
overthrew the sultan and demanded western reforms in 1908
a deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group
who was targeted in the genocide and why?
Armenians because they were Christian not Muslim
father of modern Egypt, responsible for their reforms
How did Britain gain control of the canal in 1875?
Egypt sold shares because they were unable to pay it off. Britain bought all those shares
special rights given to foreign powers
Summarize European presence in Muslim regions
1) Europeans intervene in local affairs
2) European states work to take over Ottoman lands
3) Europeans demand special rights
4) British gain control of Suez Canal
5) Egypt becomes a British protectorate
6) Russia and Britain seek oil reserves in Persia
7) Persia grants concessions to Britain and Russia
Causes of the British colonial rule in India
-Mughal empire collapsing
-British viceroy replaced East India Co.
-British East India Co. increases influence
-used force with superior weapons
Effects of British colonial rule in India
-hand weaving industry ruined
-revised legal system
-westernization = nationalist movement
-improved transportation, commutation, medical care, education, farming, etc.
A Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper classes where the wife is expected to follow her husband in the afterlife
Indian soldiers in its service
one who governed India in the name of the British monarch
Ram Mohum Roy
Founder of Indian nationalist movement
the isolation of women in separate quarters
what started the sepoy rebellion?
the British forced sepoys to serve over seas and load riffles greased in animal fat which were both against their religion
China originally had a _________ ______ _________ when it came to trade
Closed door policy
balance of trade
difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports
Opium War 1839
war fought between Britain and China over restrictions on foreign trade because china outlawed opium trade
payment for losses in war
Treaty of Nanjing
unfair treaty that gave Britain a trade surplus, where a country exports more than it imports, and China with a trade deficit, where a country imports more than it exports. Britain gains Hong Kong and china now has an open door policy
open door policy
American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade restrictions between china and other nations
what is the Taiping Rebellion and what triggers it?
peasant revolt triggered by poverty and a misery increase
leader of "Heavenly Kingdom of Peace" who was inspired by Christian missionaries
Self Strengthening Movement 1860's
westernize by building factories, modern weapons, and railroads
no government support
war between China and Japan in which Japan gained Taiwan. showed China's industrial weakness
young emperor who launched the 100 days of Reform
anti foreign movement to drive out "foreign devils." Japan wins and they force Chinese to support westernization.
1900 became a _______________ _______________ until 1908 when the chaos toppled the ________ ______________
Constitutional Monarchy, Qing Dynasty
President of 1911
Three Principles of People
built by Revolutionary Alliance
right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation