Chapter 12 New Imperialism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 New Imperialism Deck (64):
1

imperialism

the domination by one country of the political economic, or cultural life of another country or region

2

new imperialism

aggressive expansion in the 1870's-1914

3

the major motives of imperialism

social
political
economic
religion
military

4

Social

-spread culture, customs, nationalism

5

Political

-vast empire building, power

6

Economic

-trade new markets, natural resources

7

Religion

-Christian belief that it was their duty

8

Military

-soldiers, naval bases, military outposts, etc.

9

why did imperialism spread so quick?

-weakness of non-western states
-western advantages
-facing criticism at home
-resisting imperialism

10

What is direct rule and who practices it?

France, a country sends officials and soldiers to administrate colonies

11

What is indirect rue and who practiced it?

Britain, kept local rulers in place but were still in charge

12

protectorate

local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European adivisors

13

sphere of influence

an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges

14

colonialism

the control of one nation by transported people of another nation, thereby setting up colonies in a new land

15

5 stages of European exposure into Africa

-costal exploration
-the slave trade
-interior exploration
-missionaries
-european control

16

who was the first country to explore Africa?

Portugal

17

What is the slave trade?

the use of African people for economic profit

18

Mungo Park & Sir Richard Burton

explored great rivers such as the Niger, Nile, and Congo

19

John Speake

-located Lake Victoria and named it after his queen

20

David Livingstone

explored Zambezi River, where he got lost

21

Henry M. Stanley

-went to find livingstone
-found him in Congo
-sent by King Leopold II

22

what was the goal of the missionaries

spread Christianity, agriculture, and education

23

What is the Berlin conference?

a conference held in Berlin to ensure that there will not be a war over Africa

24

Cultural Pluralism

learn western ways but maintain African culture (ex. Britain, Belgium, Germany)

25

Cultural Assimilation

being a part of the European culture (ex. France)

26

12 reasons for new imperialism

-natural resources
-new markets
-bankers invest profit
-outlet for population
-ship bases for coal and other supplies
-national security
-empires increased prestige
-spread western civilization
-racial superiority
-decline of older civilizations
-superior weapons and transportation
-new medicines

27

3 great Muslim empires of the 1500s

Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals

28

Who led the struggle to reform Muslim practices?

Usman dan Fadio

29

Savior of Faith

Muhammad Ahmad

30

pashas

provincial rulers

31

Which countries tried to claim land from the Ottoman Empire?

France, Russia, Britain, and later Germany

32

sultan

rulers of the Ottoman Turkish Empire

33

Young Turks

overthrew the sultan and demanded western reforms in 1908

34

genocide

a deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group

35

who was targeted in the genocide and why?

Armenians because they were Christian not Muslim

36

father of modern Egypt, responsible for their reforms

Muhammad Ali

37

How did Britain gain control of the canal in 1875?

Egypt sold shares because they were unable to pay it off. Britain bought all those shares

38

concessions

special rights given to foreign powers

39

Summarize European presence in Muslim regions

1) Europeans intervene in local affairs
2) European states work to take over Ottoman lands
3) Europeans demand special rights
4) British gain control of Suez Canal
5) Egypt becomes a British protectorate
6) Russia and Britain seek oil reserves in Persia
7) Persia grants concessions to Britain and Russia

40

Causes of the British colonial rule in India

-Mughal empire collapsing
-exploited diversity
-British viceroy replaced East India Co.
-British East India Co. increases influence
-used force with superior weapons
-sepoy rebellion

41

Effects of British colonial rule in India

-hand weaving industry ruined
-deforestation
-population growth
-famine
-revised legal system
-westernization = nationalist movement
-improved transportation, commutation, medical care, education, farming, etc.

42

sati

A Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper classes where the wife is expected to follow her husband in the afterlife

43

sepoys

Indian soldiers in its service

44

viceroy

one who governed India in the name of the British monarch

45

Ram Mohum Roy

Founder of Indian nationalist movement

46

purdah

the isolation of women in separate quarters

47

what started the sepoy rebellion?

the British forced sepoys to serve over seas and load riffles greased in animal fat which were both against their religion

48

China originally had a _________ ______ _________ when it came to trade

Closed door policy

49

balance of trade

difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports

50

Opium War 1839

war fought between Britain and China over restrictions on foreign trade because china outlawed opium trade

51

indemnity

payment for losses in war

52

Treaty of Nanjing

unfair treaty that gave Britain a trade surplus, where a country exports more than it imports, and China with a trade deficit, where a country imports more than it exports. Britain gains Hong Kong and china now has an open door policy

53

open door policy

American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade restrictions between china and other nations

54

what is the Taiping Rebellion and what triggers it?

peasant revolt triggered by poverty and a misery increase

55

Hong Xiuquan

leader of "Heavenly Kingdom of Peace" who was inspired by Christian missionaries

56

Self Strengthening Movement 1860's

westernize by building factories, modern weapons, and railroads

no government support

57

Sino-Japanese War

war between China and Japan in which Japan gained Taiwan. showed China's industrial weakness

58

Guang Xu

young emperor who launched the 100 days of Reform

59

Boxer Rebellion

anti foreign movement to drive out "foreign devils." Japan wins and they force Chinese to support westernization.

60

1900 became a _______________ _______________ until 1908 when the chaos toppled the ________ ______________

Constitutional Monarchy, Qing Dynasty

61

Sun Yixian

President of 1911

62

Three Principles of People

built by Revolutionary Alliance
-Nationalism
-Democracy
-Economic livelihood

63

extraterritoriality

right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation

65

5 Effects of China imperialism

1) increased nationalism in territories
2) modernized nations
3) increased tensions in the world
4) increased trade, interconnected world
5) spread Christianity and western culture