Chapter 12: Solutions (sections 1 & 2) Flashcards Preview

AP Chemistry > Chapter 12: Solutions (sections 1 & 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12: Solutions (sections 1 & 2) Deck (34):
1

the composition of a solution is expressed as

concentration

2

conentration is always expressed as the quantity of .. present in a fixed quantity of the ... or ...

solute; solution; solvent

3

for most solutes, there is a limit to the quntity that can dissolve in a

fixed volume of a given solvent

4

the solubility of a solute is reached when the .... and the .... are equal

rate of dissolution; rate of crystallization

5

solubility is the concentration of solute that exists in equilibrium with an ....; that is, it is the maximum concentration that can ... at a particular temperature

excess of that substance; dissolve

6

a saturated solution is one that is in equilibrium with

an excess of the solute

7

the concentration of a saturated solution is equal to the

solubility

8

an unsaturated solution is one in which the concentration of the solute is

less than the solubility

9

supersatured solutions have a concentration of solute that is

temporarily greater tahn its solubility

10

supersaturation is an ... condition

unstable

11

two of the most important factors that determine whether a given substance will dissolve in a solvent include:

the enthalpy change that accompanies solute-solvent interactions
change in disorder

12

three types of intermolecular forces are involved in the formation of condensed phase solutions:

solute-solute, solvent-solvent, solute-solvent

13

(steps in solution formation) step 1 ΔH1: expanding the solute: separating the solute into

individual components; endothermic

14

(steps in solution formation) step 2 ΔH2: expanding the solvent: overcoming .... of the solvent molecules

intermolecular forces ;endothermic

15

(steps in solution formation) step 3 ΔH3: interaction of ... and ... to form the solution

solute; solvent; exothermic

16

enthalpy of solution=

ΔH1 + ΔH2 + ΔH3

17

heat of solution is the amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a

specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent

18

many substances with positive enthalpies of solution still dissolve ... due to an increase in .. (...) which is favorable

spontaneously; entropy; disorder

19

water surrounds ions in a

sphere of hydration

20

disorder increases significantly when ionic solids

dissolve in solution

21

the interaction of the ions with water molecules is called

hydration

22

pressure has very little effect on the solubilities of .. and ..

solids; liquids

23

the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to its .... at a ..../ [a] is calculated via ...

partial pressure; given temperature; henry's law

24

henry's law:

C=kP

25

an increase in pressure favors the

denser phase

26

for gaseous solutes, an increase in pressure is relieved by additional

gas dissolving in the liquid

27

le chatelier's principle can be used to predict what is favored:
endothermic:
exothermic:

A + solvent + heat ↔ solution

B + solvent ↔ solution + heat

28

as temperature increases, the solubility ... for any substance with an endothermic enthalpy of solution and ... for one with an exothermic enthalpy of solution

increases; decreases

29

since the enthalpy of solution for most gases in water is exothermic their solubilities ... with an increase in temperature

decrease

30

the solubilities of most solids ... as the temperature of the solution increases

increases

31

some substances that appear to violate these generalizations undergo a more

complex dissolution process

32

the rte at whcih solids dissolve .... with increasing surface area of the solid

increases

33

solids tend to dissolve best when:

heated, stirred, ground into small particles

34

gases tend to dissolve best when: the solution is ..., ... is high

cold; pressure