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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Spelling words Deck (196):
1

gastrointestinal tract

another name for the digestive system or alimentary canal

2

digestive tract

another name for the digestive system or alimentary canal

3

alimentary canal

-another name for the digestive tract, digestive track , and gastrointestinal tract
-musculomembranous tube, about 30 feet, extending from the mouth to the anus and lined with mucous membrane

4

gastroenterologist

-a physician who specializes in the study of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract (including stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and bile duct)
gastr/o=stomach enter/o=small intestine -logist=one whoe specializes in the study of

5

nutritionist

-an allied professional who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition

6

rugae

-irregular ridges or folds in mucous membrane lining of the hard palate
-they are also found in the stomach which allows the stomach to expand

7

uvula

-a small, cone-shaped projection where the soft palate ends
-aids in the digestive track
-helps in producing sounds and speech

8

mastication

-chewing, tearing or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva

9

deglutition

swallowing

10

papillae

-small, rough elevations on the tongue
-contain the taste buds that detect sweet, sour, salty, and bitter tastes of food or beverages

11

amylase

-an enzyme that aids in the digestion of carbohydrates by breaking them down into smaller carb molecules
amyl/o=starch -ase=enzyme

12

lipase

-an enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats

13

salivary glands

-part of the accessory structures of the digestive tract
-3 pairs=the parotids, the submandibulars, and the sublinguals
-secretes most of the saliva produced each day through ducts

14

saliva

-water and mucous and digestive enzymes
-softens food and begins the digestion of food

15

gingiva

-a gum
-gum tissue
-plural=gingivae

16

pharynx

-the throat
-passageway for both the respiratory and digestive systems
-3 parts= the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx

17

oropharynx

-the portion of the pharynx leading away from the oral cavity

18

esophagus

-receives food from the pharynx and propels it on to the stomach
-muscular tube, 10" long, passes through an opening in the diaphragm and connects to the stomach

19

cardiac sphincter

-the muscular ring that controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach
-also known as the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
-when it relaxes---it opens to allow food
-when it contracts---it closes and prevents stomach content from going back into the esophagus
cardi/o=heart -ac=pertaining to

20

stomach

-in ULQ and have 3 major divisions=the fundus, the body, and the pylorus
-gastric juices found in the folds chemically break down foods
-muscular action causes churning which mixes the food with the secretions to create chyme

21

duodenum

-the first part of the small intestines
-also referred to as the gastric antrum
-apppr. 12" long
-receives chyme from the pylorus, secretions from the liver and pancreas
-the shortest, widest and most fixed portion of the small intestine
duoden/o=duodenum -um=noun ending

22

pyloric sphincter

-regulates the passage of the food from the stomach into the duodenum
-releases chyme in small amounts into the small intestine

23

chyme

-a liquid-like mixture of partially digested food and digestive secretions in the stomach just before it is released into the duodenum

24

jejunum

-connects the duodenum to the illeum
-appr. 8ft long

25

ileum

-continuous with the jejunum
-connects it to the large intestine at the ileocecal sphincter
-distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum

26

villi

-tiny, fingerlike projections in the mucous membrane of the small intestine
-surrounded by capillaries and functions to absorb nutrients

27

cecum

-a blind pouch on right side 2-3 inches beyond the ileocecal junction to the beginning of the colon
-the vermiform appendix hangs from the lower portion
-contains the first part of the colon
-joins the last part of the small intestine, the illeum

28

colon

-the longest portion of the large intestine
-4 sections=ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon
-ascends from the cecum to the rectum

29

sigmoid colon

-the curved portion of the colon
-connects the descending colon to the rectum

30

rectum

-last 7-8 inches of the large intestine
-connects the sigmoid colon to the anus

31

anus

-the opening through which feces are eliminated from the body
an/o=anus -us=noun ending

32

feces

-the solid waste products of digestion
-formed in the intestines and expelled through the rectum

33

defecation

-the act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus

34

bile

-a yellowish-greenish emulsifier of fats
-comes from the liver
-components are bile salts, bile pigments, and cholesterol

35

gallbladder

-pear-shaped sac on the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver and connected via the cystic duct
-stores and concentrates the bile produced by the liver
-bile is released when chyme enters the duodenum and the presence of fatty content is detected

36

bilirubin

-primary bile pigment
-orange-yellow pigment of bile
-formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin in RBCs at the end of their life span

37

glucose

-simple sugar
-major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids

38

glycogenesis

-when the liver converts excess amounts of blood glucose into a complex form of sugar (starch) for storage in the liver cells
glyc/o=sugar; sweet -genesis=the production of; formation of

39

glycogen

-complex sugar (starch)
-the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells
--preserved in the liver for use when the blood sugar is extremely low
-formed from glucose

40

glycogenolysis

-when blood sugars are dangerously low, the liver breaks down the stored glycogen into glucose and releases it into the blood
glyc/o=sugar; sweet gen/o=to produce -lysis=destruction or detachment

41

pancreas

-elongated organ of appr. 6-9 inches in ULQ of abdomen, behind the stomach
-functions both as a exocrine and endocrine gland
-exocrine=manufactures digestive juices containing trypsin, pancreatic lipase, pancreatic amylase, and sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes acidic stomach content
-endocrine=manufactures insulin, which go right into the blood capillaries
-Cells=beta cells (insulin); alpha cells (glucagon)

42

glucagon

-a hormone that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose
-produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas
-stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar is dangerously low

43

deciduous teeth

-the first set of teeth
-the "baby teeth"
-set of 20, beginning at 6 months and gone by 17 yrs old

44

enamel

-the hardest substance in the body
-covers the dentin of the crown of a tooth

45

dentin

-surrounds the pulp cavity
-forms the bulk of the tooth shell
-situated inside of the enamel and cementum

46

absorption

the passage of substances across and into tissues, such as the passage of digested food molecules into intestinal cells or liquids into kidney tubules

47

amino acids

an organic chemical compound of one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups

48

ascitic fluid

-a watery fluid that accumulates in the peritoneal cavity in assoc. w/ certain diseases (such as liver disease)
-consists of albumin, glucose, and electrolytes

49

bicuspid tooth

-one of two teeth between the molars and canines
-have flat surface for crushing and grinding food
-also known as premolar tooth

50

bolus

-ball-like mass of chewed food that is ready to be swallowed

51

bowel

-the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric opening of the stomach to the anus

52

canine tooth

-any one of the four teeth immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches
-also called cuspid tooth

53

cholelithiasis

-abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
chol/o=bile lith/o=stone; calculus -iasis=presence of an abnormal condition

54

cuspid tooth

-canine tooth

55

emulsify

to disperse a liquids into another liquid, making a colloidal suspension

56

endocrine gland

-a gland that secretes its enzymes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts
endo=within -crine=secrete

57

enzyme

- a protein produced by living cells that catalyzes chemical reactions in organic matter

58

exocrine gland

-a gland that secretes its enzymes into a network of tiny ducts that transport it to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel

59

gavage

-a procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube

60

gingivitis

-inflammation of the gums
gingiv/o=gums -itis=inflammation

61

hematemesis

-vomiting of blood
hemat/o=blood -emesis=to vomit

62

hepatocyte

-liver cell
hepat/o=liver cyte=cell

63

hydrochloric acid

-a compound consisting of hydrogen and chlorine

64

incisor

one of eight teeth the first appear as primary teeth during infancy are replaced by permanent incisors during childhood and last until old age

65

insulin

a naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood

66

molar tooth

-any of the 12 teeth posterior to the premolar teeth
-flat surface with multiple projections (cusps) for crushing and grinding food

67

parotid gland

-one of the largest pairs of salivary glands that lie at the side of the face just below and in front of the external ear

68

paristalsis

-the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the ureters

69

peritoneum

-the serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera

70

sphincter

-a circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening in the body, such as the hepatic sphincter in the muscular coat of the hepatic veins near the union with the superior vena cava (or anal sphincter)

71

triglycerides

-a compound consisting of fatty acid (oleic, palmitic, or stearic) and glycerol

72

uvula

-the small- coned-shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate

73

achlorhydria

-an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
a=without, not chlor/o=green hydr/o=water -ia=condition

74

anorexia

-lack of or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
an=without -orexia=to eat

75

aphagia

-a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes

76

borborygmus

-an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis
-rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling noises heard when listening with a stethosope

77

constipation

-difficulty in passing stools or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools

78

diarrhea

-a frequent passage of loose, watery stools

79

dyspepsia

- a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating
-feelings of fullness, heartburn, bloating, and nausea
dys=bad; difficult; painful; disordered -pepsia=digestion

80

dysphagia

-difficulty in swallowing, often associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
dys=bad; difficult; painful; disordered -phagia=to eat

81

emaciation

-excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition

82

emesis

-material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
-vomitus

83

eructation

-the act of bringing up air from the stomach with a characteristic sound through the mouth
-belching

84

flatus; flatulence

-air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum

85

gastroesophageal reflux

-the backflow of the content of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
gastr/o=stomach esophag/o=esophagus -eal=pertaining to

86

icterus

-a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
-jaundice

87

jaundice

-icterus

88

melena

-abnormal, black, tarry stool containing digested blood

89

nausea

-an unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit

90

pruritus ani

common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus

91

steatorrhea

-greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces
-frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter that floats
steat/o=fat -rrhea=discharge; flow

92

vomit

-to expel the content of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth

93

vomitus

-emesis

94

achalasia

-decreased mobility of the lower 2/3 of the esophagus and constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter
-usually from lack of nerve impulses and absence of sympathetic receptors
-relaxation of the sphincter fails to happen
-fluid and food accumulate in the lower esophagus
-diagnosed with barium swallow and endoscopy

95

anal fistula

-an abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum
-may occur as the result of a draining abscess

96

aphthous stomatitis

-small, inflammatory, noninfectious, ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside the cheeks
-canker sores
-no known cause but possibly emotional stress, food and drug allergies, endocrine imbalances, viral infections, and vitamin deficiency
-painful but heal in 7-14 days
stomat/o=mouth -itis=inflammation

97

appendicitis

-inflammation of the vermiform appendix
-usually acute and can lead to rupture with resulting inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis)
-caused by an obstruction of the appendix opening
-symptoms: anorexia, nausea, pain
-applying pressure over McBurney's point can indicate this condition

98

celiac disease

-nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small-bowel mucosa
-occurs because of ingesting gluten-containing foods such as barley, rye, oats, and wheat
-fat digestion is affected
-manifests as steatorrhea, abdominal distension, and malnourished appearance
-must not eat gluten foods to treat

99

cirrhosis

- a disease of the liver that chronic and degenerative
-causes damage to the hepatocytes
-fats infiltrate the lobules of the liver, the tissue covering the lobes becomes fibrous, and the functions of the liver eventually deteriorate
-happens as the result of common liver diseases, alcoholism, malnutrition, infection or poisons
-diagnosis: blood tests and liver biopsy
-treatment:eliminate the cause, sometimes liver transplant
cirrh/o=yellow/tawny -osis=condition

100

colorectal cancer

-the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
-most are adenocarcinomas
-50% originate in the rectum
-cause is unknown but risk factors include high fat, low-residue diet, history of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or familial polyposis
-diagnosis: examination, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, and/or colonoscopy, and stool examination

101

constipation

-patterns of bowel elimination is infrequent and stools are hard and dry making defecation difficult
-common complaint among older adults
-factors: decreased peristalsis, decreased appetite, inadequate fluid intake, and lack of exercise
-diet to prevent: small frequent meals, > fiber, and plenty of fluids

102

Crohn's disease

-chronic digestive tract inflammation causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
-inflammation of the bowel usually results in extreme swelling, obstruction, malnutrition
-also known as regional enteritis

103

dental caries

-tooth decay by acid-forming microorganisms
-the organisms live off of fermentable carbohydrates (sugars)
-creates decalcification of the tooth's enamel and dentin
-between the teeth and on the grooves of the chewing surfaces of the teeth
-prevention: fluoride, flossing, and brushing

104

diverticular disease

-used for both diverticulosis and diverticulitis
-diverticulosis: non-inflamed out-pouchings or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestine, typically the sigmoid colon
-diverticulitis: the inflammation of the pouches
-common after age 45, low fiber diets
-symptoms: cramping pain, fever increased flatus, and elevated WBC count
-diagnosis: proctoscopy and barium enemas

105

dysentery

-painful intestinal inflammation often caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants
-a person has frequent stools that often contain blood
-occurs as a result of unsanitary conditions

106

esophageal varices

-swollen, twisted (tortuous) veins located in the distal end of the esophagus
-usually caused by portal hypertension (causes pressure in the veins to increase and susceptible to hemorrhage) which occurs because of liver disease
esophag/o=esophagus -eal=pertaining to

107

hemorrhoids

-an unnaturally distended or swollen vein (called a varicosity) in the distal rectum or anus
-internal hemorrhoids=occurring above the internal sphincter; are very painful and may bleed
-external hemorrhoids=occurring outside the sphincter; do not typically bleed or cause pain

108

hepatitis

-acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites
-presents as gastric discomfort; enlarged, tender liver; jaundice; anorexia, joint pain; elevated liver enzymes
-most common is viral hepatitis A, B, or C
-Hep A: transmitted by fecal-oral route b/c of poor hygiene, contaminated water, or shellfish
-Hep B: transmitted from blood or body fluid; potential to lead to excessive destruction of liver cells, cirrhosis, or death
Hep C: transmitted through blood transfusions, needle sharing; 1/2 case progress to a chronic state

109

hernia

-an irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall
-muscle weakness can be due to inheritance, aging, heavy lifting, obesity, coughing, or pregnancy
-hiatal hernia or diaphragmatic hernia: associated with the digestive system, occurs as a result of an upward protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm due to an enlarged cardiac spincter

110

herpetic stomatitis

-inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primary or a secondary viral infection caused by herpes simplex
-the primary infection usually occurs during early childhood and often asymptomatic or form of ulcerations in the mouth
-secondary is a recurrent viral infection lying dormant until reactivated by a fever, upper respiratory infection, or sunlight exposure; lesions appear on lips, palate, tongue and gingiva of mouth and called cold sores

111

Hirschsprung's disease

-absence at birth of the autonomic ganglia in a segment of the intestinal smooth muscle wall that normally stimulates peristalsis

112

ileus

-a term used to describe an obstruction of the intestine
-may occur because of twisting of the bowel, absence of peristalsis, presence of adhesions or tumor

113

intestinal obstruction

-complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the content in the small or large intestines
-constitutes a surgical emergency within 24 hours
-Causes: inflammation causing < diameter of lumen; adhesions forming after abdominal surgery; tumors; hernias becoming incarcerated; volvulus occurs when bowel becomes twisted; intussusception; neurogenic factors resulting in lack of peristalsis after surgery
-Treatment: often with a intestinal tube

114

intussusception

-telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine, usually ileocecal region
-usually occurs in infants and young children
-diagnosed and treated with a barium enema and surgery if that doesn't work.

115

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); spastic colon

-increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall, resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and trapping of gas thought the intestines
-diarrhea may occur
-is distinctively in response to emotional stress

116

oral leukoplakia

-a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
-they have clearly defined borders
-occurs because of chronic mucosal irritation, which occurs with the use of tobacco and alcohol
or/o=mouth -al=pertaining to leuk/o=white -plakia=a plate; flat plate

117

pancreatitis

-an acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
-acute: presents quickly; can be mild or severe
-chronic: permanent, progressive destruction of the pancreatic cells identified with fibrosis, atrophy, and fatty degeneration and calification

118

peptic ulcers (gastric, duodenal, perforated)

- a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
-they are acute or chronic, singular or clustered, and shallow or deep
-acute are often shallow and multiple w/ few symptoms and heal w/out scarring
-chronic is often singular, deep, symptomatic, and persistent
-if creates a hole through, it is a perforating ulcer needing surgery

119

periodontal disease

-used to describe a group of inflammatory gum disorders, which may lead to degeneration of teeth, gums, and sometimes surrounding bones
-occurs in 90% of the population
-early stages=gingivitis, discoloration, and bleeding
-late stages=purulent inflammation of the gums (pyorrhea)

120

thrush

-a fungal infection in the mouth and throat, producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces
-caused by the fungus Candida albicans
-common in infants or people w/ immunosuppressed systems

121

ulcerative colitis

- a chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers
-characterized by large watery diarrheal stools containing mucus, pus, or blood; discomfort and intestinal spasms
-causes an increased risk of colon cancer

122

volvulus

- a rotation of loops of bowel, causing twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction

123

abdominal ultrasound

-using very-high-frequency sound waves to provide visualization of the internal organs of the abdomen
-also known as an abdominal sonogram

124

abdominocentesis (paracentesis)

-insertion of a needle or trocar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position
abdomin/o=abdomen -centesis=surgical puncture
para=near, beside, 2 like parts -centesis=surgical puncture

125

alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

-a hepatocellular enzyme released in elevated amounts due to liver dysfunction
-also known as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
-high levels can indicate hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic ischemia, hepatic tumor, hepatotoxic drugs, obstructive jaundice, myositis, and pancreatitis

126

alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

-enzyme is found in the highest concentrations in the liver, biliary tract, and bone
-increased levels found in cirrhosis, intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary obstruction, liver tumors, and intestinal ischemia or infarction
-decreased levels seen in malnutrition, celiac disease, and excess vit B ingestion

127

amylase

-enzyme secreted from the pancreatic cells that travels to the duodenum by way of the pancreatic duct and aids in digestion
-when the pancreatic duct is blocked or there is damage to the cells that secrete amylase, the enzyme pours into the free peritoneum and intrapancreatic lymph system
-abnormal levels can indicate acute pancreatitis, penetrating or perforated peptic ulcers, perforated bowel, necrotic bowel, duodenal obstruction and acute cholecystitis

128

appendectomy

-surgical removal of the appendix
-if no rupture has occurred, a laparoscopic appendectomy may be performed by removing appendix through a scope

129

barium enima (BE)

-infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum and held in the lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract
-can help find malignant tumors, colonic stenosis, colonic fistula, perforated colon, diverticula, and polyps
-lower GI series

130

barium swallow (UGI)

-oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
-X-rays are taken of esophagus, borders of the heart, lower esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
-lower GI series

131

cheiloplasty

-surgically correcting a defect of the lip
cheil/o=lip -plasty=surgical repair

132

cholecystectomy

-surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecyst/o=gallbladder -ectomy=removal of

133

cholecystography

-visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
chol/e=bile cyst/o=bladder, sac, or csyt -graphy=process of recording

134

colonoscopy

-direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope
colon/o=colon -scopy=the process of viewing

135

colostomy

-surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which the feces will be expelled by bringing the incised colon out to the abdominal surface
col/o=colon -stomy=the surgical creation of a new opening

136

CT of the abdomen

-a painless, noninvasive X-ray procedure that produces an image created by the computer representing a detailed cross section of the tissue structure within the abdomen
-e.g. computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen

137

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

-ERCP
-a procedure that examines the size of and filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope
endo=within scop/o=to view -ic=pertaining to
chol/e=bile angi/o=vessel pancreat/o=pancreas -graphy=process of recording

138

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

-ESWL
-an alternative treatment for gallstones by using ultrasound to align the computerized lithotripter and source of shock waves with the stones to crush the gallstones and thus enable the contraction of the gallbladder to remove stone fragments
extra=outside, beyond corpor/o=body -eal=pertaining to lith/o=stone -tripsy=intentional crushing

139

fluoroscopy

-radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part by using a fluoroscope
flour/o=luminous -scopy=the process of viewing

140

herniorrhaphy

-the surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect, using sutures , mesh, or wire
-rrhaphy=suturing

141

liver biopsy

-a piece of liver tissue is obtained for examination by inserting a specially designed needle into the liver through the abdominal wall

142

liver scan

-a noninvasive scanning technique, that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver ofter the IV injection of a radioactive compound
-the compound is taken up by the Kupffer cells

143

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

-noninvasive procedure that provides visualization of fluid soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation
-changes the alignment of hydrogen atoms

144

nasogastric intubation

-tube placement through the nose into the stomach for the purpose of relieving gastric distension by removing gastric secretions, gas, or food
-nas/o=nose gastr/o=stomach -ic=pertaining to

145

percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)

-examination of the bile duct structure by using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium
per=through cutane/o=skin -ous=pertaining to
trans=across hepat/o=liver -ic=pertaining to
chol/e=bile angi/o=vessel -graphy=process of recording

146

serum bilirubin

-a measurement of the bilirubin level in the serum
-serum bilirubin is the result of the breakdown of RBCs
-jaundice caused by abnormally high levels of bilirubin

147

serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)

-an enzyme that has very high concentrations in liver cells
-also known as aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
-testing levels indicates extent of disease on the liver cells

148

stool culture

-the collection of a stool specimen placed on one or more culture mediums and allowed to grow colonies of microorganisms to identify specific pathogen(s)

149

stool guaiac

-test on a stool specimen using guaiac as a reagent, which identifies the presence of blood in the stool

150

urinary bilirubin

-a test performed on urine to check for conjugated or direct bilirubin in a urine specimen
-bilirubin should not normally be in urine

151

biliary

-of or relating to the bile or bile duct

152

atresia

-absence or abnormal narrowing of an opening or passage in the body.

153

buccal

cheek

154

cecostomy

a surgical procedure that is used to clear the bowels of fecal matter

155

celiac rickets

arrested growth and osseous deformities associated with defective absorption of fat and calcium in celiac disease.

156

cheilosis

condition of the lips

157

cholecystitis

-inflammation of the gallbladder

158

cholecytogram

-picture of the gallbladder

159

colorectal

pertaining to colon and rectum

160

duodenal

pertaining to the duodenum

161

duodenstomy

surgical opening in the duodenum

162

enteritis

inflammation of the small intestines

163

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

164

gastrectasia

dilation or expansion of the stomach

165

gastric

pertaining to the stomach

166

gastrointestinal endoscopy

internal visual examination pertaining to the stomach and intestines

167

gastrorrhagia

hemorrhage from the stomach

168

gastrospasm

spasm of the stomach

169

gastrostomy

surgical opening in the stomach

170

glossitis

inflammation of the tongue

171

glucogenesis

The formation of glucose through the breakdown of glycogen.

172

glycolysis

conversion of glucose to the simpler compounds

173

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

174

hepatorrhaphy

suture of the liver

175

ileocecal

pertaining to the ileum and cecum

176

insulin

a protein hormone formed in the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The major fuel-regulating hormone, it is secreted into the blood in response to a rise in concentration of blood glucose or amino acids. Insulin promotes the storage of glucose and the uptake of amino acids, increases protein and lipid synthesis, and inhibits lipolysis and gluconeogenesis

177

jejunostomy

surgical opening in the jejunem

178

laparoscopy

surgical procedure in which a small incision is made, usually in the navel, through which a viewing tube (laparoscope) is inserted

179

lingual

relating to, near, or on the side toward the tongue.

180

lipolysis

the breakdown of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis to release fatty acids.

181

lipoma

a benign tumor of fatty tissue.

182

lithogenesis

the formation of stones

183

lithotripsy

to crush or break stones

184

mandibular

the jaw or a jawbone

185

oral

mouth

186

orthodontist

one who treats the teeth

187

paracentesis

a procedure during which fluid from the abdomen is removed through a needle

188

pharyngoscope

an instrument used to examine the pharynx

189

proctoscopy

visual examination of the rectum and anus

190

polyphagia

excessive eating

191

rectocele

swelling or hernia of the rectum

192

sialogram

an instrument to record saliva

193

sigmoidoscopy

visual examination of the sigmoid colon

194

spastic colon

irritable bowel syndrome

195

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

196

stomatoplasty

surgical repair of the mouth