Chapter 12 : The Eukaryotes : Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 : The Eukaryotes : Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths Deck (23):
1

Prokaryotes only

• cell wall contains peptidoglycan or pseudomurein
• binary fission
• 70S ribosomes
• singular circular chromosome

2

Eukaryotes only

• membranous organelles, including mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum
• 80S ribosomes
• nuclear envelope compartmentalizes the chromosomes

3

Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

• has both DNA and RNA
• plasma membrane encloses the cytoplasm
• includes unicellular cells

4

List 4 categories of pathogenic eukaryotes

Animals, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa

5

List 4 defining characteristics of the fungi kingdom

Fungi are chemoheterotrophs and acquire food by absorption. With the exception of yeasts, fungi are multicellular. Most reproduce with sexual and asexual spores.

6

List 3 benefits of Fungi

1. decompose dead plant matter
2. used for food consumption and production
3. used to produce dru

7

mycology

the study of fungi

8

The eukaryotic organisms that are involved in causing or spreading disease.

arthropod
fungus
alga
helminth
protozoan

The Domain Eukarya includes a number of organismal groups involved in causing or spreading disease. These groups include the arthropods (insects, ticks), helminths (worms), fungi, protozoa, and algae. Fungi, helminths, and protozoa all include members that directly cause infections. Some algal species produce toxins that cause disease indirectly, and several different arthropod species serve as vectors for viral and bacterial diseases.

9

Arthropods

• Members of this group have hard exoskeletons and jointed appendages.
• Members of this group serve as vectors, transmitting several different viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites between hosts.

10

Helminths

• Members of this group come in flat or round forms, and although many parasitize animals, there are also free-living forms.
• Parasitic members of this group often have complex life cycles involving one or more intermediate hosts in which larvae develop.

11

Fungi

• Members of this group produce a variety of different reproductive spores and filaments referred to as hyphae.
• This group includes unicellular as well as filamentous forms, a number of which cause infections.

12

Algae

• Members of this group are found predominantly in aquatic environments.
• Members of this group generally don't cause infections, but some produce neurotoxins that cause intoxications in animals that consume them.

13

Protozoa

• Many members of this group are motile by means of cilia, flagella, or pseudopods.
• Members of this group cause malaria and diarrheal illnesses such as amebiasis and giardiasis.

14

. Asexual spores that form as buds coming off the parent cell are known a ________ and are produced by yeasts such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

blastoconidia

15

Sexual spores known as_________ are located on a base pedestal and are found in mushrooms.

basidiospores

16

Candida albicans, a species of pathogenic yeast, is often recognized by its ______ , which are large, thick-walled asexual spores within a hyphal segment.

chlamydoconidia

17

Coccidioides immitis is a pathogenic fungus that forms asexual spores called ________, which result from fragmentation of hyphae.

arthroconidia

18

Some fungi reproduce sexually by forming _____ , which are sexual spores contained within a sac structure.

ascospores

19

Rhizopus stolonifer, the common black bread mold, forms asexual spores called ________, which are contained in a sac at the end of aerial hyphae

sporangiospores

20

Describe characteristics of algae.

1. Both asexual and sexual reproduction occurs among the diversity of algal species.
2. Algae may be green, red, or brown.
3. Some marine algae produce neurotoxins that can be concentrated in shellfish and pose a risk of paralytic shellfish poisoning to humans who consume the shellfish.
4. Algae lack roots, stems, leaves, and vascular tissues that are found in terrestrial plants.
5. Most algae have a plantlike cell wall composed of cellulose.

21

Describe protozoa.

1. While living in the gut of their host, intestinal protozoan parasites are usually in the trophozoite form.
2. Most protozoa are motile via pseudopods, flagella, cilia, or undulating membranes.
3. As a group, protozoa exhibit both asexual and sexual reproduction.
4. Protozoan cysts enable protozoan parasites to survive during passage from one host to the next.

22

Describe medically important helminths.

1. The major organ system apparent in tapeworm proglottids is the reproductive system.
2. Parasitic helminths lack a complete digestive system and they absorb nutrients directly through their cuticles.
3. Humans can serve as either definitive or intermediate hosts of flatworms.
4. Either eggs or larval stages of helminths may be infectious, depending on the species.
5. Some helminth infections involve more than one intermediate host.

23

list 5 beneficial economic effects of fungi

1. citric acid used for food and beverages
2. used to make bread and wine
3.used to make vaccinations
4. used for pest control
5. produces taxol an anticancer medication