Chapter 12: The Origins, Evolution, and Dispersal of Modern People Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: The Origins, Evolution, and Dispersal of Modern People Deck (36):
1

Feldhofer Neadertal

Most important early modern human found
During 1800's, published in 1856 as archaic human
Rudolf Virchow (anti-darwin) rejected archaic view

2

Archaic Humans Features

low sloping forehead
heavy brow ridge
projecting face or chin
large teeth
wide, large cheek bones
more prominent occipital bun

3

Modern Human Features

High, Vertical forehead
less prominent occipital bun
small, gracile brow ridges
small teeth
small flat cheek bones

4

Out-of-Africa Hypothesis

replacement of populations of archaic homo by modern Homo sapiens with limited interbreeding

5

Mulitregional continuity hypothesis

ongoing but limited gene flow such that archaic africans to modern africans and Asians to modern asians and archaic europeans to modern europeans with limited replacement

6

Replacement with genetic assimilation through some

some gene flow with Archaic Homo

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Early Homo Sapiens and Modern Human Origins are

globally similar, with similar morphological features and increased cultural complexity

8

Importance of Shanidar 1

Elderly male with a very large brain, eye injury, arm atrophy, foot with arthritis, heavy wear on front teeth to replace useless area

9

Moula-Gercy

studied and suggested cannibalism or ritual defleshing

10

Chapelle-aux-Saints

Neandertal that was not self sufficient and was cared for tremendously and buried carefully and with culture significance

11

Neandertals cold adaptations

shorter, stalkier, large nasal aperture to warm and moisten air and large infraorbital foramina for increased blood flow to face, reducing risk of hypothermia and frostbite

12

Levallois Technique

small, marginal flaking to create edges and detaching cutting/scraping tool from core of flint

13

Mousterian Complex

stone tool culture provided by Neandertals

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Middle Paleolithic

Middle Stone Age associated with sophisticated Mousterian tools

15

Upper Paleolithic

associated with modern Homo sapiens tools

16

Neandertals were effective

hunters with evidence of effective hunting, not malnourished by observing calculus on teeth

17

Neandertals have hyoid bones so they can

speak

18

Handedness in Neandertals

observed by looking at how food entered mouth by looking at scrape directions on teeth

19

Brain laterality

Opposite hemisphere controls side body motions
L brain hemisphere controls areas associated with speech and language
scratches on teeth show handedness

20

Symbols

Necklaces of perforated shells, stained with colored pigments
Body pigments/paints (Iberian Peninsula)

21

Chauvet Cave Art

shows extinct animals
idea of representing motion
stone tools show level of fine skills

22

Bone injuries are as bad as those of

bull riders

23

Sites of Earlier humans

Aduma, Bouri, Herto, and Omo, Ethiopia

24

Klasies River Mouth Cave

very early human jaw bone

25

Modern Homo sapiens Anatomical features

high forehead, round skull, with reduced face and teeth
large cranial capacities
chin gracile
gracile post cranial skeleton
some robusticity

26

Skhul V shows

Cohabitation of modern Homo sapiens and Neandertals
prominent, robust brow ridges, retains projecting face and flaring zygomatic, less than archaics

27

Homo Florensiensis

much smaller human, not Sapien, but still Homo

28

Dolni Vestonice and Cro-Magnon show

combo of Neandertal and H. Sapiens: long narrow skull, prominent occipital buns, narrow nasal, high forehead

29

Gobero Crania

modern human
skull robusticity not eliminated entirely
diet dependent

30

Lagar Velho

Neandertal like robusticity in limb bones and some cranial aspects with modern features

31

4 Scenarios for Neandertal Genetic Admixture

1. gene flow into Neandertal from other Archaic hominids collectively referred to as Homo Erectus
2. gene flow between late Neandertals and early modern humans in Europe and/or Western Asia
3. gene flow between Neandertals and the ancestors of all non-Africans
4. old substructure in Africa persisting from the origin of Neandertals until ancestors of non-africans left Africa

32

Microcephaly

a condition in which the cranium is abnormally small and the brain is underdeveloped.

33

shovel-shaped incisors

incisors posterior aspect has varying degrees of concavity

34

Paleoindians

the earliest hominin inhabitants with Clovis and Folsom stone cultures

35

clovis

large, fluted, bifacial stone projectile points used as spear points

36

folsom

large, fluted, bifacial projectile points used as spear points for big game hunting