Chapter 12 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Vocab Deck (28):
1

Nonrenewable

Once they are used up, they cannot be replenished.

2

Nuclear Fuels

Derived from radioactive materials that give off energy.

3

Fossil Fuels

Derived from biological material that became fossilized millions of years ago.

Examples: coal, oil, and natural gas

4

Commercial energy sources

Sources that are bought and sold

Ex: coal, oil, natural gas

5

Subsistence energy sources

Sources gathered by individuals for their own immediate need

6

Energy carrier

Something than can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end users

Ex: electricity

7

Turbine

A large device that resembles a fan or jet engine

8

Electrical grid

Network of interconnected transmission lines; connects power plants together & links them with users of electricity

9

Combined cycle

Natural - gas fired power plant which has two turbines and generators & waste turns a conventional dream turbine.
60% efficiency

10

Capacity

Maximum electrical output

11

Capacity Factor

The fraction of time the plant is operating

(*sometimes shut down for maintenance)

12

Cogeneration

Use of a fuel to generate electricity AND produce heat

13

Coal

Solid fuel formed from the remains of trees, plants, etc (280-360 millions of years ago)

14

Petroleum

Often used fossil fuel; fluid mix of hydrocarbons, water, & sulfur (occurs in underground deposits)

15

Crude oil

Liquid petroleum removed from the ground

16

Oil sands

Slow/flowing, viscous deposits f bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay

17

Bitumen

Aka tar or pitch
Degraded type of petroleum formed when petroleum deposit isn't capped with nonporous rock

18

CTL
(Coal-To-Liquid)

Technology to convert solid coal into a liquid fuel

19

Energy intensity

Energy per unit of gross domestic product

20

Becquerel (Bq)

Unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays
1 Bq= decay of 1 atom f nucleus per second

21

Control rods

Cylindrical device inserted between fuel rods in a Nuc. Reactor to absorb excess neutrons & slow/stop fission reactions

22

Curie

Unit of measure for radiation;
1curie = 37 billion decays per second

23

Fuel rods

Cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel within a nuclear reactor

24

Fission

A Nuc. Reaction in which a beauteous strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts, releasing additional neutrons an energy in the form of heat

25

Hubbert Curve

Bell-shaped curve representing oil use & projecting both when world oil production will reach a max. And when it will run out

26

Nuclear fusion

A reaction that occurs when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei

27

Peak Oil

Point at which have of the total known oil supply is used up

28

Radioactive waste

Nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful, but continues to emit radioactivity