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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (27):
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Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the bases of a codon of mRNA

Anticodon

1

Group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated onto a protein

Codon

2

Process of cells becoming specialized in structure and function

Differentiation

3

Expressed sequence of DNA;codes for a protein

Exon

4

Mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

Frameshift mutation

5

Process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function

Gene expression

6

Collection of codons of mRNA each of which directs the incorporation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis

Genetic code

7

Genes that code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell development and differentiation

Homeobox genes

8

A class of regulatory genes that determine the identity of body parts and the regions in an animal embryo. Mutations in these genes can transform one body part into another

Homeotic gene

9

A group of homeotic genes clustered that determine the head to tail identity of body parts in animals all hox genes contain the homeobox DNA sequence

Hox gene

10

Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding of a protein

Intron

11

Type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of Amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

Messenger RNA

12

Chemicals or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and May cause a mutation

Mutagen

13

Change in the genetic material of a cell

Mutation

14

Short DNA region adjacent to the promoter of a prokaryotic operon, that binds repressor proteins responsible for controlling the rate of transcription of the operon

Operator

15

In prokaryotes, a group of adjacent genes that shares a common operator and promoter and are transcribed into a single mRNA

Operon

16

Gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed

Point mutation

17

Long chain of amino acids that makes proteins

Polypeptide

18

Condition in which an organism has extra sets if chromosomes

Polyploidy

19

Specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription

Promoter

20

Single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose

Ribonucleic acid

21

Type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes

Ribosomal RNA

22

Introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cell to inhibit gene expression

RNA interference

23

Enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template

RNA polymerase

24

Synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template

Transcription

25

Type of RNA that contains each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis

Transfer RNA

26

Process by which the sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein

Translation