Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (40):
1

describe the acoustic stimulus/signal

patterns of pressure changes in the air produced by the position or movement of structures in the vocal apparatus

 

2

generally describe the pathway of air that produces the acoustic signal

up from lungs

past vocal cords

into vocal tract

3

articulators

structures that change the shape of the vocal tract and alter sound

tongue

lips

teeth

jaw

soft palate

4

how are vowels produced

how are specific sounds of each vowel created

vocal cord vibrations

changing the shape of the vocal tract

5

how does changing the vocal tract shape change the sound of a vowel

it changes the resonant frequency of the tract and produces peaks of pressure at formants

6

formant

horizontal band of energy in speech production that makes up vowel sounds

7

describe the collection of formants each vowel sounds has

several formants that go from lowest frequency and up

8

how are consonants produced

by constricting the vocal tract

9

what do the movements of the articulators do to whats produced on the spectrogram

they create patterns of energy in the acoustic signal

10

formant transitions

rapid shifts in frequency coming before or after formants

associated with consonants

11

phoneme

the shortest segment of speech that if it were changed it would change the meaning of a word

12

how many vowel and consonant phonemes are there in english

13 vowel

24 consonant

13

coarticulation

the overlapping articulation that happens when different phonemes follow each other in speech

14

how does coarticulation affect the way we hear/articulate phonemes

the same phoneme can be articulated differently depending on the context it appears

15

perceptual constancy of acoustic signal

categorical perception

16

4 speaker variability effects

  1. voice pitch
  2. accents
  3. speed
  4. sloppy speech

17

3 ways the acoustic signal can vary

coarticulation

speaker effects

sloppy pronunciation

18

categorical perception

variability in speech stimulus, we percieve distinct categories of sound

19

how does categorical perception in speech work

voice onset time (VOT)

20

voice onset time (VOT)

the time delay between when a sound begins and when the vocal cords begin to vibrate

21

phonetic boundary

the VOT when perception changes from one speech category to another in an experiment

(da --- VOT increased ---- ta)

22

perceptual constancy with VOT and phonemes

you can present two stimuli with a certain difference on one side of the phonetic boundary and they are perceived as being the same

same difference across the boundary and they are perceived to be different

23

multimodal (in terms of speech)

our perception can be influenced by infro from a number of different senses

24

audiovisual speech perception

the influence of vision on speech perception

25

what happens in the brain when people lip read

the same areas that activate when perceiving speech are activated

26

what area is activated when listening to speech produced by anyone

superior temporal sulcus

27

what area is activated when listening to a familiar voice

the fusiform face area

28

phonemic restoration effect

when you perceive a phoneme in a word even if that phoneme is left out or obscured

29

when is phonemic restoration effect less likely to occur

when the mask does not sound quite as similar to the expected phoneme

30

shadowing

in research, having subjects listen to something and immediately repeat it

31

speech segmentation

the perception of individual words in a conversation

32

what helps us perceive individual words in conversation even though there are no breaks in the signal

knowledge of the language

33

transitional probabilities

the chances that one sound will follow another sound

34

statistical learning

 

at what age can this be seen

the process of learning about transitional probabilities and other characteristics of language

as young as 8 months

35

indexical characteristics

things that carry info about speakers ages, genders, place of origin, emotional state, and tone

36

Broca's aphasia

 

where

labored and stilted speech

speak only short sentences

can comprehend just fine

 

fronta lobe

37

Wernicke's aphasia

produce words just fine

word salad

difficulty understanding

 

temporal lobe

38

voice cells

cells that respond more to voices than to other non-voice sounds

39

where is the voice area and voice cells located

 

what pathway

temporal lobe

 

what

40

dual-stream model of speech perception

ventral/what pathway going from temporal lobe used for speech recognition

dorsal/where pathway starting in parietal that is for linkng acoustic signal to movements used to produce speech