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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (42):
1

availability heuristic

events that are more easily remembered are judged to be more probable than events that are less easily remembered

2

base rate

relative proportions of different classes in a population. Failure to consider base rates can often lead to errors of reasoning

3

belief bias

tendency to think a syllogism is valid if its conclusion is believable or that it is invalid if the conclusion is not believable

4

categorical syllogism

a syllogism in which the premises and conclusion describe the relationship between two categories by using statements that begin with All, No, or Some

5

conclusion

the final statement in a syllogism, which follows from the two premises

6

conditional syllogism

syllogism with two premises and a conclusion, like a categorical syllogism, but whose first premise is an "If... then" statement

7

confirmation bias

tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to our hypothesis and to overlook information that argues against it

8

conjunction rule

probability of the conjunction of two events (such as feminist and bank teller) cannot be higher than the probability of the single constituents (feminist alone or bank teller alone)

9

decisions

making choices between alternatives

10

deductive reasoning

reasoning that involves syllogisms in which a conclusion logically follows from premises.

11

dual systems approach

idea that there are two mental systems, one fast and the other slower, that have diffeerent capabilities and serve different functions

12

evolutionary perspective on cognition

idea that many properties of our minds can be traced to the evolutionary principles of natural selection

13

expected emotion

emotion that a person predicts he or she will feel for a particular outcome of a decision

14

expected utility theory

the idea that people are basically rational, so if they have all of the relevant information, they will make a decision that results in the most beneficial result

15

falsification principle

reasoning principle that to test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule

16

framing effect

decisions are influenced by how the choices are stated

17

heuristic

a "rule of thumb" that provides a best-guess solution to a problem

18

illusory correlation

a correlation that appears to exist between two events, when in reality there is no correlation or it is weaker than it is assumed to be

19

incidental emotions

in a decision-making situation, emotions not directly caused by the act of having to make a decision

20

inductive reasoning

reasoning in which a conclusion follows from a consideration of evidence. This conclusion is stated as being probably true rather than definitely true, as can be the case for the conclusions from deductive reasoning

21

law of large numbers

the larger the number of individuals that are randomly drawn from a population, the more representative the resulting group will be of the entire population

22

mental model

specific situation that is represented in a person's mind

23

mental model approach

in deductive reasoning, determining if syllogisms are valid by creating mental models of situations based on the premises of the syllogism

24

myside bias

type of confirmation bias in which people generate and test hypotheses in a way that is biased toward their own opinions and attitudes

25

neuroeconomics

an approach to studying decision making that combines research from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, and economics

26

opt-in procedure

procedure in which a person must take an active step to choose a course of action - - for example, choosing to be an organ donor

27

opt-out procedure

procedure in which a person must take an active step to avoid a course of action - - for example, choosing not to be an organ donor

28

permission schema

a pragmatic reasoning schema that states that if a person satisfies condition A, then they get to carry out action B. The permission schema has been used to explain the results of the Wason four-card problem

29

premise

the first two statements in a syllogism. The third statement is the conclusion

30

reasoning

cognitive processes by which people start with information and come to conclusions that go beyond that information.

31

representative heuristic

probability that an event A comes from class B can be determined by how well A resembles the properties of class B

32

risk aversion

tendency to make decisions that avoid risk

33

risk aversion strategy

a decision-making strategy that is governed by the idea of taking risks. Often used when a problem is stated in terms of gains

34

risk-taking strategy

decision-making strategy that is governed by the idea of taking risks. Often used when a problem is staated in terms of losses

35

social exchange theory

important aspect of human behaviour is the ability for two people to cooperate in a way that is beneficial to both people. According to the evolutionary perspective on cognition, application of this theory can lead to the conclusion that detecting cheating is an important part of the brain's cognitive makeup. This idea has been used to explain the results of the Wason four-card problem

36

status quo bias

tendency to do nothing when faced with making a decision

37

stereotype

oversimplified generalization about a group or class of people that often focuses on negative characteristics

38

syllogism

series of three statements: two premises followed by a conclusion. The conclusion can follow from the premises based on the rules of logic

39

ultimatum game

a game in which a proposer is given a sum of money and makes an offer to a responder as to how this money should be split between them. The responder must choose to accept the offer or reject it. This game has been used to study people's decision-making strategies

40

utility

outcomes that achieve a person's goals; in economic terms, the maximum monetary payoff

41

validity

quality of a syllogism whose conclusion follows logically from its premises

42

Wason four-card problem

conditional reasoning task developed by Wason that involves four cards. Various versions of this problem have been used to study the mechanisms that determine the outcomes of conditional reasoning tasks