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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (76):
1

What are the two main functions of the respiratory system ?

To bring oxygen from the environment in the body
To remove carbon dioxide waste from the body

2

What are the major components of the respiratory system ?

Two lungs that serve as the vital organs
Upper and lower airways that conduct or move gas throughout the system
Terminal air sacs called alveoli surrounded by a network of capillaries that allow gas exchange
A thoracic cage that houses, protects facilities function for the system
Muscles of breathing

3

What are the air sacs at the terminal ends of the airway ?

Alveoli

4

This is the process is in which oxygenated blood exchanges gases with tissues in the body

Respiration

5

This is where the trachea bifurcates, forming the bronchi

Carina

6

What is noncancerous growths in the nasal cavity that can be related to chronic inflammation ?

Nasal polypus

7

Which condition is characterized by airway inflammation and intermittent bronchospasm ?

Asthma

8

The amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs in a normal breath
A normal tidal volume is about 500 mL (though this varies by age, sex height, and fitness)

Tidal Volume

9

The volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration

Functional Residual Capacity

10

The amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal inspiration

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

11

The amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal expiration

Expiratory Reserve Volume

12

The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration
This volume prevents total lung collapse

Residual Volume

13

The maximum amount of air that can be move into an out of the respiratory system in a single respiratory cycle

Vital Capacity

14

What are the two components of breathing ?

Ventilation and Respiration

15

What are the gases air contain ?

Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide

16

Each lung is divided into _____. The right lungs has three ______, upper, middle, and lower. The left lung has two _____, upper and lower.

Lobes

17

What "protective" section is made up of the Sternum and Thoracic cage ?

Ribs

18

What is the respiratory control center ?

Medula Oblongata

19

How do cilia and mucus work together ?

To keep foreign material out of the lungs

20

What are the sinuses ?

Air-filled cavities in the skull that interconnect with the nasal cavity via small passageways

21

The six general functions of the upper airway

Heating or cooling inhaled in the upper airway to body temperature
Filtering particles from inhaled air
Humidifying particles from inhaled air
Providing sense of smell
Producing sounds
Conducting gas to lower airways

22

What are the three main parts of the nasal cavity ?

Vestibular
Olfactory
Respiratory Region

23

What are large dome-shaped primary muscle of breathing ?

Diaphragm

24

What is the flap of cartilage that closes the airways during swallowing ?

Epiglottis

25

_______ is the process of moving the air into and out of the lungs; ______ is the process of exchanging gases with the bloodstream

Ventilation
Respiration

26

Strep throat is a kind of bacterial pharyngitis

Pharyngitis

27

A less-severe infection of the laryngeal area characterized by noisy breathing, especially on inspiration; barking cough

Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)

28

A dangerous infection that causes swelling of the epiglottis and airways obstruction

Acute epiglottis

29

Caused by over 200 different types of viruses

Common cold

30

Infection and inflammation of the sinuses
Typically caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B
Symptoms include fever, sore throat, respiratory distress, drooling, dysphagia, and dysphonia

Sinusitis

31

Inflammation, swelling, an pain of the tonsils

Tonsillitis

32

Characterized by hoarseness and loss of speech

Laryngitis

33

A condition characterized by trapped air between the chest wall and the outer surface of the lung

Pneumothorax

34

Large airways that branch off the trachea

Bronchi

35

Type of COPD characterized by destruction of the alveoli

Emphysema

36

Membrane that surrounds each lung and reduces the friction of breathing

Pleura

37

The tiny, hair like projections on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells

Cilia

38

The windpipe; the long cartilage-supported tube that extends own the upper portion of the chest

Trachea

39

The voice box

Larynx

40

Flexible muscular tube (positioned just behind the trachea) that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach

Esophagus

41

A family of diseases characterized by irreversible airway obstruction

COPD

42

Very small airways

Bronchioles

43

An infection of the lung tissue

Pneumonia

44

Another name for nostril

Nare

45

Why do we need to exchange these gases ?

Oxygen is used by our cells to convert food into ATP
Carbon dioxide is the waste product generated by cellular respiration

46

Breathing must take place continuously

Our bodies only have enough stored oxygen to last 4-6 minutes
If the reserves are used up and oxygen is not replenished, death will result

47

The respiratory system consists of series of branching tubes that carry air deep within the lungs

The larger tubes are called bronchi

48

The nose is a rigid structure comprised of what ?

Cartilage and bone

49

What are the three parts of the nasal cavity ?

Vestibular region
Olfactory region
Respiratory region

50

Vestibular Region

Located inside the nostrils
Contains coarse nasal hairs, called vibrissae

51

Olfactory Region

Located at the roof of the nasal cavity
Function- detecting smell

52

Respiratory Region

Makes up the majority of the nasal cavity
Function- to warm and moisten air

53

When does allergic rhinitis occur ?

Occurs when allergens trigger the nasal mucosa to secrete excessive mucous

54

Each cell has how many cilia on its surface ?

200 to 250

55

A watery layer that houses the cilia

Sol layer

56

A viscous and sticky layer that sits on top of the sol and can trap small particles

Gel layer

57

An inherited disease that causes secretion of very thick mucus

Cystic fibrosis

58

The throat

Pharynx

59

What are the three sections divided behind the nasal cavity ?

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

60

Uppermost section beginning behind the nasal cavities

Nasopharynx

61

Center section of the pharynx located behind the oral, or buccal cavity

Oropharynx

62

Two types of tonsils

Palatine tonsils
Lingual tonsils

63

Lowermost portion of the pharynx

Larynsopharynx

64

This is the location where gas exchange occurs

Blood from the right heart enters the pulmonary capillaries high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen
Inhaled air in the alveoli is low in carbon dioxide and high in oxygen

65

Gas exchange takes place

The pulmonary capillary blood increases in oxygen concentration

66

Bright red blood

oxygenated blood

67

Dark red blood

Deoxygenated blood

68

A condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are either partially or totally collapsed

Atelectasis

69

Types of COPD

Asthma
Emphysema
Chronic bronchitis

70

Reversible airway narrowing
Airway hyperactivity
Chronic airway inflammation

Asthma

71

Possible triggers for asthma

Allergens
Cold air
Exercise

72

An irreversible condition characterized by destruction of alveolar walls an loss of elastic recoil in the lung

Emphysema

73

Causes of Emphysema

Smoking

74

A condition where the airways are inflamed and large amounts of sputum are produced

Chronic bronchitis

75

Conical-shaped organs

Lungs

76

Structures of the bony thorax

Sternum
Thoracic cage
The thoracic vertebrae