Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (76):
What are the two main functions of the respiratory system ?
To bring oxygen from the environment in the body
To remove carbon dioxide waste from the body
What are the major components of the respiratory system ?
Two lungs that serve as the vital organs
Upper and lower airways that conduct or move gas throughout the system
Terminal air sacs called alveoli surrounded by a network of capillaries that allow gas exchange
A thoracic cage that houses, protects facilities function for the system
Muscles of breathing
What are the air sacs at the terminal ends of the airway ?
This is the process is in which oxygenated blood exchanges gases with tissues in the body
This is where the trachea bifurcates, forming the bronchi
What is noncancerous growths in the nasal cavity that can be related to chronic inflammation ?
Which condition is characterized by airway inflammation and intermittent bronchospasm ?
The amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs in a normal breath
A normal tidal volume is about 500 mL (though this varies by age, sex height, and fitness)
The volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration
Functional Residual Capacity
The amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal inspiration
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal expiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume
The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration
This volume prevents total lung collapse
The maximum amount of air that can be move into an out of the respiratory system in a single respiratory cycle
What are the two components of breathing ?
Ventilation and Respiration
What are the gases air contain ?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide
Each lung is divided into _____. The right lungs has three ______, upper, middle, and lower. The left lung has two _____, upper and lower.
What "protective" section is made up of the Sternum and Thoracic cage ?
What is the respiratory control center ?
How do cilia and mucus work together ?
To keep foreign material out of the lungs
What are the sinuses ?
Air-filled cavities in the skull that interconnect with the nasal cavity via small passageways
The six general functions of the upper airway
Heating or cooling inhaled in the upper airway to body temperature
Filtering particles from inhaled air
Humidifying particles from inhaled air
Providing sense of smell
Conducting gas to lower airways
What are the three main parts of the nasal cavity ?
What are large dome-shaped primary muscle of breathing ?
What is the flap of cartilage that closes the airways during swallowing ?
_______ is the process of moving the air into and out of the lungs; ______ is the process of exchanging gases with the bloodstream
Strep throat is a kind of bacterial pharyngitis
A less-severe infection of the laryngeal area characterized by noisy breathing, especially on inspiration; barking cough
A dangerous infection that causes swelling of the epiglottis and airways obstruction
Caused by over 200 different types of viruses
Infection and inflammation of the sinuses
Typically caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B
Symptoms include fever, sore throat, respiratory distress, drooling, dysphagia, and dysphonia
Inflammation, swelling, an pain of the tonsils
Characterized by hoarseness and loss of speech
A condition characterized by trapped air between the chest wall and the outer surface of the lung
Large airways that branch off the trachea
Type of COPD characterized by destruction of the alveoli
Membrane that surrounds each lung and reduces the friction of breathing
The tiny, hair like projections on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells
The windpipe; the long cartilage-supported tube that extends own the upper portion of the chest
The voice box
Flexible muscular tube (positioned just behind the trachea) that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
A family of diseases characterized by irreversible airway obstruction
Very small airways
An infection of the lung tissue
Another name for nostril
Why do we need to exchange these gases ?
Oxygen is used by our cells to convert food into ATP
Carbon dioxide is the waste product generated by cellular respiration
Breathing must take place continuously
Our bodies only have enough stored oxygen to last 4-6 minutes
If the reserves are used up and oxygen is not replenished, death will result
The respiratory system consists of series of branching tubes that carry air deep within the lungs
The larger tubes are called bronchi
The nose is a rigid structure comprised of what ?
Cartilage and bone
What are the three parts of the nasal cavity ?
Located inside the nostrils
Contains coarse nasal hairs, called vibrissae
Located at the roof of the nasal cavity
Function- detecting smell
Makes up the majority of the nasal cavity
Function- to warm and moisten air
When does allergic rhinitis occur ?
Occurs when allergens trigger the nasal mucosa to secrete excessive mucous
Each cell has how many cilia on its surface ?
200 to 250
A watery layer that houses the cilia
A viscous and sticky layer that sits on top of the sol and can trap small particles
An inherited disease that causes secretion of very thick mucus
What are the three sections divided behind the nasal cavity ?
Uppermost section beginning behind the nasal cavities
Center section of the pharynx located behind the oral, or buccal cavity
Two types of tonsils
Lowermost portion of the pharynx
This is the location where gas exchange occurs
Blood from the right heart enters the pulmonary capillaries high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen
Inhaled air in the alveoli is low in carbon dioxide and high in oxygen
Gas exchange takes place
The pulmonary capillary blood increases in oxygen concentration
Bright red blood
Dark red blood
A condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are either partially or totally collapsed
Types of COPD
Reversible airway narrowing
Chronic airway inflammation
Possible triggers for asthma
An irreversible condition characterized by destruction of alveolar walls an loss of elastic recoil in the lung
Causes of Emphysema
A condition where the airways are inflamed and large amounts of sputum are produced