Chapter 13: Biotechnology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Biotechnology Deck (41):
1

biotechnology

any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof to make or modify procudts or processes

2

recombinant DNA

single molecules containing DNA sequences from two or more organisms

3

what tools are used to make recombinant DNA?

restriction enzymes for xutting DNA into pieces (fragments) that can be manipulated
Gel electrophoresis for the analysis and purification of DNA fragments
DNA ligase for joining DNA fragments together in novel combinations

4

restriction enzymes

cut double stranded DNA moleules into smaller, noninfectious fragments

5

recognition sequence or a restriction site

specfic sequence of DNA bases that restriction enzymes recognize
most are 4-6 bp long
make palindromes
some cut so there is a little bit of single stranded DNA

6

methylases

add methyl groups to cell DNA so that restriction enzymes do not chop up the DNA of the cell they are from becuase they can't recognixe them

7

restriction digest

using restriction enzymes in the lab

8

gel electophoresis

a way to separate DNA fragments
fragments placed in wells on one end of a semisolid gel and an electric field is applied DNA will move toward the positive end, with smaller draments traveling more quickly

9

What info does gel electophoresis give?

the number of fragments
the size of the fragments
the relative abundance of a fragment

10

DNA ligase

involved in DNA metabolism
catalyzes the joining of DNA fragments by making phosophodiester bonds between them
joins Okizaki fragments

11

clone

produce many identical copies

12

transformation

inserting recombinant DNA into host cells

13

transfection

insering recombinant DNA into host cells derived from animals

14

Transgenic

describes a cell with recombinant DNA

15

True or false: most cells that are exposed to recombinant DNA become transormed with it

false
only a few do

16

selectable marker genes

ex. genes that confer antibioitic resistabce
often included in recombinant DNA

17

electroporation

a short electric shock used to create temporary pores in membranes through which DNA can enter

18

replicon

replication unit
a segement of DNA that contains an origin of replication

19

How can DNA become part of a replicon?

inserted into host chromsome
can enter host cell as a vector and then integrate or have its own origin of replication

20

vector

part of a carrier DNA sequence

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plasmid

small
one or more restriction enzyme recognition sequence
contain genes that conger resistance
ori and replicate independently

22

Do most cells take up vectors after interactions?

nope

23

Do all vector copies have the foreign DNA after ligatio n reactions?

nope

24

reporter gene

genes whose expression are easily assayed
ec. selectable markers

25

genomic library

a collection of DNA fragments that comprise the genomw of an organism

26

cDNA

complementary DNA

27

cDNA library

snapshot of the transcription pattern of the cell
collections of cDNAs from a particular tissue at a particular time in the life cycle of an organism

28

synthetic DNA

created from PCR amplifications

29

knockout experiment

inactivate a gene and see what happens
helps determine the minimal genome

30

homologous recombination

targets specific genes
insert normal alleles into plasmid and then restriction enxymes insert reports genes in the middle of the normal gene, which prevents it from creating normal proteins
once the recombinant plasmid has been made, it is used to transfect stem cells
swap nonfunctioning allele with functioning in host

31

stem cell

unspecialized cell that divides and differentiates into specialized cells

32

antisense RNA

binds by pairing to complementary sense bases on mRNA
ex. microRNA
prevents translation of mRNA

33

RNA interference

RNAi
a natural mechanism for inhibiting mRNA translation
uses small interfering RNAs which are made in a process similar to the processing od microRNAs (double stranded)

34

small interfering RNAs

siRNAs
short double stranded RNA that is unwaound to single stranfs by a protein complex that guides one strand to a complementary mRNA and then causes the breakdown of the mRNA

35

expression vectors

have the characteristics of typical vectors and the extra sequences needed for the foreign gene to be expressed in the host cell

36

inducible promoter

responds to a specfic signal can be included in an expression vector

37

tissue-specific promotoer

expressed only in certain tissues at certain times
can be used it localized expression is desired

38

signal sequences

can be added to expression vectors so the gene product goes where it needs to

39

pharming

the production of pharmaceuticals in farm animals or plants

40

advantages of recombinant DNA technology over traditional methods of breeding

-identify specfiic genes
introduce any gene from any organism
ability to generate new organisms quickly

41

Bioremediation

The use by humans of other organisms to remove contaminants from the environment