Flashcards in Chapter 13: Community Food Supply and Health Deck (30):
As a result of changing lifestyles and family patterns, Americans now eat more
b. canned foods.
c. convenience foods.
d. foods prepared from scratch.
Farmers use pesticides to
a. increase the shelf life of foods.
b. control plant diseases.
c. prevent food-borne disease.
d. increase crop yields.
control plant diseases.
Pesticides are used to control plant diseases. Farmers use certain chemicals to control a wide variety of destructive insects that reduce crop yield. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the use of pesticides and other chemicals to ensure safety for the public.
Farming methods that use natural means of pest control without the use of synthetic pesticides are called
a. fossil fuel.
b. genetic modified.
Organic farming methods use natural means of pest control and meet the standards set by the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Organic Program. Organic foods are grown without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers, sewage sludge, or ionizing radiation.
Lead absorption is increased in children with
b. iron deficiency.
c. high sugar intakes.
d. unsafe drinking water.
Children exposed to high levels of lead demonstrate
a. mental deficits.
b. heart problems.
c. respiratory problems.
d. kidney problems.
Children exposed to high levels of lead sustain permanent neurologic damage that can manifest itself in the form of mental deficits.
Mercury poisoning is most often caused by eating
a. raw seafood.
b. improperly canned foods.
c. fish from contaminated water.
d. crops grown with pesticides.
fish from contaminated water.
Methyl mercury is a toxin contaminating large bodies of water and the fish within.
The main government agency responsible for food safety is the
a. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
b. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
c. U.S. Public Health Service (PHS).
d. Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is responsible for ensuring, among other things, that America’s food supply is safe, pure, and wholesome.
GRAS stands for
a. generally recognized additive substances.
b. greatly reduced additive substances.
c. generally restricted additive substances.
d. generally recognized as safe.
generally recognized as safe.
and is used to define additives that have been used in foods and do not need FDA approval.
The temperature in a refrigerator should be at or below _____° F.
Control of food-borne disease focuses on strict measures. Cold storage should protect food from deterioration or decay. Home refrigerator temperatures should be maintained at 40° F or lower. At temperatures higher than 45° F, any precooked or leftover foods are potential reservoirs for bacteria that survive the cooking and can recontaminate the cooked foods.
Food additives _____ the nutritional value of foods.
b. sometimes increase
c. have no effect on
d. are legal only if they increase
along with helping produce uniform qualities, standardizing many functional factors, preserving foods by preventing oxidation, and controlling acidity or alkalinity.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) food safety systems
a. include testing to ensure that food will not cause food-borne illness.
b. allow food safety inspectors to critique food production without visiting the site.
c. can be used only in restaurants and food-service facilities.
d. help prevent food-borne illness by controlling specific aspects of food production.
help prevent food-borne illness by controlling specific aspects of food production.
HACCP is a food safety system that focuses on preventing food-borne illness by identifying critical points and eliminating hazards.
Bacterial food poisoning is caused by
a. ingestion of toxic bacteria.
b. toxins produced by bacteria in the intestines.
c. toxins produced by bacteria in the bloodstream.
d. ingestion of toxins produced by bacteria in the food before it is eaten.
ingestion of toxins produced by bacteria in the food before it is eaten.
The Food and Drug Administration enforces federal regulations pertaining to
a. the use of pesticides.
b. food prices.
c. nutrition labeling.
d. food subsidies.
are enforced by the Food and Drug Administration. The U.S. government is committed by law to the food labeling reform.
The bacterial toxin that may contaminate improperly canned green beans is produced by
a. Staphylococcus aureus.
b. Salmonella typhi.
c. Listeria monocytogenes.
d. Clostridium botulinum.
is an anaerobic (or nearly so) bacterial toxin, meaning the relatively air-free can and canning temperatures provide good conditions for toxin production.
Under the Commodity Supplemental Food Program, surpluses of perishable foods are
a. bought by the government and distributed through programs for the needy.
b. sold below market value.
c. sent to Third World countries.
d. processed to make nonperishable food items.
bought by the government and distributed through programs for the needy
To prevent food-borne parasitic infections, it is important to
a. buy meats from reliable sources.
b. freeze meat before it is cooked.
c. cook meats thoroughly.
d. store raw meat in air-tight packaging.
cook meats thoroughly.
Food-borne illnesses can be prevented with proper cooking techniques and cooking to proper temperatures.
Food stamps are supposed to cover a household's food needs for
a. 1 week.
b. 2 weeks.
c. 1 month.
d. 2 months.
The National School Lunch Program provides meals for
a. poor children.
b. all students.
c. children at nutritional risk.
d. children younger than 12 years.
The WIC program provides nutritious foods to
a. low-income pregnant women.
b. all children younger than 5 years.
c. all pregnant women and their children younger than 5 years.
d. low-income women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and their children younger than 5 years.
low-income women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and their children younger than 5 years.
Nutrition programs established by the government for the elderly include
a. Share a Meal.
b. Drive-Through Meals.
c. Congregate Meals Program.
d. Nutrition Supplements Program.
Congregate Meals Program.
are provided for older Americans under the Older Americans Act. Congregate meals are nutritionally sound meals provided in senior centers and other public or private community facilities.
To increase shelf life, fresh produce such as fruit may be treated after harvest by
a. boiling at a high temperature.
c. spraying with pesticides.
d. dusted with a special powder.
Fresh produce may be irradiated to increase shelf life. Irradiation can kill bacteria and parasites on food after harvest.
The Nutrition Facts panel on a food label lists the amount of nutrients in
a. a standard serving of food.
b. 100 g of food.
c. the whole package of food.
d. an amount of food defined by the manufacturer.
a standard serving of food.
Food labels contain a Nutrition Facts panel that lists the amount of nutrients in a standard serving of food along with kilocalories from fat, percentage of daily values, number of kilocalories per gram of fat, carbohydrates, and protein.
If a food label states that a food is “low in cholesterol,” it must contain
a. 20 mg or less of cholesterol per serving.
b. 2 g or less of cholesterol and no animal products per serving.
c. 20 mg or less of cholesterol and 2 g or less of saturated fat per serving.
d. 20 mg or less of cholesterol and 2 g or less of total fat per serving.
20 mg or less of cholesterol and 2 g or less of saturated fat per serving.
A microorganism that can live and grow without oxygen is called
Someone who has severe diarrhea, fever, and headache 3 days after attending a catered event probably has
b. a food-borne infection.
c. bacterial food poisoning.
d. heavy metal poisoning.
a food-borne infection.
is caused by the ingestion of bacterial toxins that have been produced in the food by the growth of specific kinds of bacteria before the food is eaten.
Most food-related hazards to consumers are caused by
a. food-borne illness.
b. overuse of additives.
c. contamination of foods with pesticides.
d. eating fish from contaminated water.
Most food-related hazards to consumers are caused by food-borne illness. The Public Health Service estimates 76 million people each year in the United States become sick because of food-borne illness, with 325,000 of them hospitalized.
Staphylococcal food poisoning is most often caused by
a. inadequate cooking of foods.
b. intake of rancid food.
c. food handlers with infected cuts.
d. intake of slightly moldy food.
food handlers with infected cuts.
Foods that are particularly effective carriers for staphylococci and their toxins include custard or cream-filled bakery goods, processed meats, ham, tongue, cheese, ice cream, potato salad, sauces, chicken and ham salads, and combination dishes.
Ice cream products contain lecithin, which is a
a. food additive.
b. genetically engineered component.
d. vitamin supplement.
Lecithin is a food additive that acts as an emulsifier in dairy products.
A health claim as identified by the Food and Drug Administration would be
a. low sodium and the prevention of hypertension.
b. a low-carbohydrate diet prevents obesity.
c. supplemental vitamin A and the prevention of osteoporosis.
d. high protein intake and the increased risk of cancer.
low sodium and the prevention of hypertension.