Flashcards in Chapter 13 Gastrointestinal Tract- Fill in the Blank Deck (20):
List the sequential parts of the digestive system.
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (cecum;ascending, transverse, and descending colon; and rectum)
The lower end of the esophagus is a circular muscle that acts as a sphincter, constricting the tube so that the entrance to the stomach, at the _______, is generally closed. This helps to prevent gastric acid from moving up into the esophagus.
The pylorus is further subdivided into the _____ , the _____canal, and the ______ sphincter.
antrum, pyloric, pyloric
The duodenum is subdivided into four segments:
The duodenal bulb is peritoneal, supported by the hepatoduodenal, and passes ________ to the common bile duct, gastroduodenal artery, common hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and head of the pancreas.
The common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct to enter the_______.
ampulla of vater
The arteries that supply the esophagus include the inferior _____ branch of the ______ artery that supplies the upper esophagus; the descending _______ aorta that supplies the midesophagus; and the ______ branch of the celiac axis and the left inferior ______ artery of the abdominal aorta that supplies the lower end of the esophagus.
Thyroid, subclavian, thoracic, gastric, phrenic
The ______ outlines the small intestine and contains the superior mesenteric vessels, nerves, lymphatic glands, and fat between its two layers.
The nutrients are transported to the liver after they are absorbed by the _____ ; the liver processes ans stores the nutrients.
The three layers of smooth muscle in the wall enable the stomach to mash and churn food and move it along with_____.
Gastric glands secrete gastric juice containing________ acid and ______
The hormone _____ , which is released by the stomach mucosa, stimulates gastric acid secretion.
Gastrointestinal hormones include ________ and ________.
______ within the large intestine devour the chyme and it turn produce vitamins that can be absorbed and used by the body.
The most common laboratory data the sonographer may come across in a patient with gastrointestinal disease relate to the presence of _____ in the stool.
As a result of chronic blood loss, ____ may be present.
The _________ junction is seen on the sagittal scan to the left of the midline as a bull's-eye or target-shaped structure anterior to the aorta, posterior to the left lobe of the liver, and inferior to the hemidiaphram.
The gastric _____ can be seen as a target shape at the midline.
The sonographer usually cannot see the small bowel with ultrasound; the valvulae conniventes may be seen as linear echo densities spaced 3 to 5 mm apart. This is called the _______ and can be seen in the duodenum and jejunum.