Chapter 13 Gastrointestinal Tract Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Gastrointestinal Tract Key Terms Deck (41):
1

Localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue.

abscess

2

process of nutrient molecules passing through wall of intestine into blood or lymph system.

absorption

3

also known as the digestive tract; includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and small and large intestine.

alimentary tract

4

a fecalith or calcification located in the appendix

appendicolith

5

accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen

ascites

6

entrance of the esophagus into the stomach

cardiac orifice

7

hormone secreted into the blood by the mucosa of the upper small intestine; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and pancreatic secretion of enzymes

cholecystokinin

8

inflammation of the bowl, accompanied by abscess and bowl wall thickining

Crohn's disease

9

a pouchlike herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ that occurs in the stomach, the small intestine, or most commonly, the colon

diverticulum

10

first part of the duodenum

duodenal bulb

11

calcified deposit within the appendix; appendicitis can develop when the appendix becomes blocked by hard fecal matter

fecalith

12

endocrine hormone released from the stomach (stimulates secretion of gastric acid)

gastrin

13

helps support the lesser curvature of the stomach

gastrohepatic ligament

14

helps support the greater curvature of the stomach

gastrophrenic ligament

15

ligament between the stomach and the spleen; helps support the stomach and spleen

gastrosplenic ligament

16

double fold of the peritoneum attached to the duodenum, stomach, and large intestine; helps support the greater curve of the stomach; known as the fatty apron

greater omentum

17

normal segmentation of the wall of the colon

haustra

18

collection of blood

hemorrhage

19

ascending colon rises from the right lower quadrant to bend at this point to form the transverse colon

hepatic flexure

20

membranous extension of the peritoneum that suspends the stomach and duodenum from the liver; helps to support the lesser curvature of the stomach

lesser omentum

21

ligament between the spleen and the kidney that helps support the greater curvature of the stomach

lienorenal ligament

22

malignancy of the lymph nodes, spleen, or liver

lymphoma

23

located by drawling a line from the right anterosuperior iliac spine to the umbilicus; at approximately the midpoint of this line lies the root of the appendix

McBurney's point

24

site of maximum tenderness in the right lower quadrant; usually seen with appendicitis

McBurney's sign

25

congenital sac or blind pouch found in the lower portion of the ileum

Meckel's diverticulum

26

a fold from the parietal peritoneum that attaches to the small intestine, anchoring it to the posterior abdominal wall

mesentery

27

fifth layer of bowel

mesothelium

28

first layer of bowel

mucosa

29

third layer of bowel

muscularis

30

dilated fluid-filled bowel loops without peristalsis

paralytic ileus

31

rhythmic dilation and contraction of the gastrointestinal tract as food is propelled through it

peristalsis

32

a small tumor-like growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface

polyp

33

muscle that connects the stomach to the proximal duodenum

pyloric canal

34

inner folds of the stomach wall

rugae

35

released from small bowel as antacid; stimulates secretion of bicarbonate

secretin

36

forth layer of bowel; thin, loose layer of connective tissue, surrounded by mesothelium covering the intraperitoneal bowl loops

serosa

37

the transverse colon travels horizontally across the abdomen and bends at this point to form the descending colon

splenic flexure

38

one of the layers of the bowl, under the mucosal layer, contains blood vessels and lymph channels

submucosa

39

characteristic of gastrointestinal wall thickening consisting of an echogenic center and a hypoechoic rim

target sign

40

normal segmentation of the small bowel

valvulae conniventes

41

inner folds of the small intestine

villi