Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Gender and Sexuality Deck (56):
Define gender role
set of norms or culturally defined expectations that define how people of one gender ought to behave
Since age of six, Nova Scotia researchers found what about kids and gender rolling?
They were able to gender role peoples by identifying stories with genders since age 6
Describe the traditional sexual script (TSS)
it is heterosexual script, and describes how men and women are to behave
What are 5 aspects with the TSS?
1. Men are oversexed, and woman are undersexed
2. High sexual experience enhances mens status, but decreases women perceived status
3. Men are supposed to be sexperts, and are responsible for both their and female partners orgasm
4. Men are supposed to be initiators in sexual situations
5. Women are supposed to be sexual gatekeepers, and limit sexual activity, and supposed to resist initial sexual advances
Does research support TSS?
Not so much, there is still a bit of expectation that men initiate sex, but women regularly initiate sex! (just a little less often)
Ways in which society cones to the individual its norms or exceptional for his or her behaviour
What are the two ways self-socialization operate?
1. Children come to identify with particular gender
2. Seeing themselves as matching the stereotypes for their own gender srengthens children gender identity
The process of incorporating the beliefs and customers of a new culture
Describe differences with gender roles with the South Asian communities
women are submissive to men
men take the lead, women are supposed to be uninformed about sex
women shouldn't complain about extramarital sex, such as with sex worker, as men are king
Describe differences with gender roles with the Chinese communities
Reluctant to separate or divorce with family
Extramarital sex for men may be ok, not for women
Describe differences with gender roles with the English speaking caribbean communities communities "black"
Many single parent families, mostly headed by woman
restrictions placed on girls to prevent adolescent pregrancy
female wants babies, and young men want lots of different sexual partners
Describe differences with gender roles with the Aboriginal communities
Used to have more egalitarian roles, then Europeans made men more dominant by influence
They also have words for third of fourth genders, and if a man marries a two-spirit male, it is not homosexual, because he is another gender.
Also things such as women warriors, and they could express masculine trailts or participate in male activists while continuing to live and dress as women
How are men and women different with aggressiveness?
males are more aggressive
How are men and women different with communication?
Women tend to self-disclose more than men do about sexual and non-sexual issues, but this is changing so men are bit more disclosing
What is "decoding non-verbal cues"
Ability to read others body language correctly.
Women are better than men at this
What are differences between men and women masturbation practices?
Men do it more, and females sometimes take until they are 25, 30 etc to do it!
What are differences between men and women casual sex?
Men are a bit more recreational, while females are more relational
What are differences between men and women with pornography?
men are more likely, because or arousal to erotica probably
What is arousal to erotica differences with men and women?
This is assumption that men are more aroused by erotic material, and therefore more material is made for men.
What is penile strain gauge
Device used to measure physiological sexual arousal via vasocongestion around base of penis
What is photoplethysmograph
Device used to measure physiological sexual arousal via vasocongestion in vagina entrance
What is the new and possibly best way to measure sexual arousal when comparing both men and women?
What were the three important results from the research studying arousal in men vs women with erotic tapes?
1. Explicit heterosexual sex (erotic and erotic-romantic tapes) was most arousing for men and women. Women actually were more aroused for just erotic then men do degree
2. Both men and women found female initiated tape to be most arousing
3. Men were better to perceive themselves as being aroused (erection is hard to miss), half of women didn't know they were vasocongestioning
Who has greater sex drive, men or women?
What was bogus pipeline study?
To find if the differences found between men and women in past studies were fabricated from desired social answers.
So they made people fill out questionarre attached to fake lie detector, anonymously, or right with someone watching.
With bogus pipeline condition, men and womens # of partners was equal (women slightly hiigher!), in anonymity the gap was smaller with women having less, and with person watching women reported much less!
So this suggests that differences still may be true, but exaggerated!
What are two problems with logic that testosterone in males accounts for most differences?
1. Womens body may be more sensitive to testosterone, so a little might go a long way
2. We are using differences found in animals to make inferences on humans, gotta be careful
What is person-centred sex, and body-centred sex?
Person-centred: sexual expression for relationship between two people
Body-centred: epmphasis on the body and physical pleasure
What is gender dysphoria?
Discomfort with ones assigned gender
What is Gender Identity Disorder?
Strong and persistent cross gender identification
What is transgender
Those who think of themselves as third gender, gender benders, or others
Transgender is used to refer to what 5 types of people?
2. Intersex persons
3. Cross dressers
4. people with masc and femme traits
What are two stages of coming to terms with new gender?
1. experience anxiety about their gender and sex, leading to questioning
2. Change gender and sexes, some by realignment surgery, and others via hormones or just living as other gender
Person who's physical sex doesn't match their gender identity
Transwoman are what?
Male to female
Transmen are what?
Female to male
What is "passing"
This is when trans person goes into say a supermarket, and nobody knows that anything is up.
What is usually more successful mtf or ftm reassignment surgery?
mtf is usually mores successful
What is GID?
Gender Identity Disorder
This is diagnosed and patholizes children saying that they have very strong discomfort with biological sex. Then reassignment surgery can happen even before puberty. The risk is that many of these cases actually just turn out to be gay as adults, and dabbled in cross dressing when they were younger.
What is Buccal smear?
This is test of genetic sex, which in a small scraping of cells is taken from inside of mouth, stained, and examined under microscope. This was used to test for olympic tennis player who lived like female, but had manly body features
What are three substantial gender differences in sexuality?
Incidence of masturbation
attitudes about casual sex
use of pornography
What are the three sets of factors proposed to explain gender differences in sexuality?
1. Biological factors (anatomy and hormones)
2. Cultural factors (gender roles, and double standard)
3. Other factors (fear of pregnancy, difference in masturbation practices)
Is there reason to believe that patterns of gender differences in sexuality change in middle age and beyond after university?
Generally, is the adjustment of transsexuals following gender reassignment good?
Generally, its good
Only in men, the hypothalamus is responsible for what?
Sex and violence
What is faulty thinking?
That these are opposites:
What is the difference between sexual behaviour and orientation?
Sexual behaviour is who you want to have sex with, appealing etc.
Orientation is who you fall in love, romantic
How do we connect concepts of gender with sexual orientation or identity?
How can we say something is femme or masc, when members of each have characteristics of each
What is Dominican Republic Syndrome?
First documented in group of 18 affected boys in two rural villages, which prevents testosterone from masculizing external genitals.
Boys looked like girls and reared as females, at puberty they developed secondary sex characteristics and 17/18 shifted to masc gender identities.
What are three examples of third genders from notes?
1. Ladyboys of Thailand
2. Two-Spririts of North America
3. Hijras of South-Central Asia
How many genders does the Boogies (?) have?
and ones that embody both are really powerful for blessing
Research suggests what is the best way for people to learn about transgender issues?
From a transsexual person, which generates understanding and empathy
What are the key points to Jenn's Transexual talk?
1. She always knew her gender, she just didn't know what a shitstorm it would cause
2. Transitioning caused problems such as depression
3. Societys attitudes about transgendered people have improved, and it is no longer a huge extraordinary thing to witness. Many know a transgendered person know.
4. Little things such as choosing which bathroom to go to can be a huge deal, and Jenn had workplace troubles because of this
5. There is no black and white, we should embrace "ish".
6. Society is a ton more tolerable, but not necessarily accepting.
What is the big thing Jenn wants you to know?
That there is no black and white aspect of humanity, and we should embrace the "ish"
What is queer term?
It's like a dimmer switch, it's an infinite number of valid possibility. So if we say were queer, the other person will find out who they are eventually by finding out.
children as young as ___ are aware of gender stereotypes
3 years old