Chapter 13 hematologic disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 hematologic disorders Deck (68):
1

What is a general term for a decrease in volume of RBCs or in the concentration of hemoglobin?

-Anemia

2

What does hematocrit =?

-Volume of RBCs

3

What are some underlying diseases that anemia might be associated with?

-Renal failure
-Liver disease
-Chronic inflammatory conditions
-Malignancies
-Vitamin or mineral deficiencies

4

What are the general symptoms of anemia?

-Tiredness
-Headache
-Fainting/feeling lightheaded
-Pallor

5

What are oral symptoms of anemia?

-Glossodynia (pain)
-Glossopyrosis (burning)
-Tongue atrophy (bald)

6

What is a hematologic disorder characterized by a markedly decreased number of circulating blood platelets?

-Thrombocytopenia

7

What is the result of thrombocytopenia?

-Abnormal bleeding

8

What are the decrease in platelets in thrombocytopenia due to?

-Reduced production
-Increased destruction
-Sequestration in the spleen

9

What is a normal platelet count?

200,000-400,000

10

Clinical evidence of thrombocytopenia is not seen until platelet count is below what?

100,000/mm3

11

In thrombocytopenia patients, the small capillaries leak blood which result in what?

-Petechiae (small breakage and leakage of capillaries)

12

What is the order of advancement of thrombocytopenia clinically?

-Petechiae
-purpura (fused petechiae)
-ecchymosis

13

What do special types of thrombocytopenia include?

-Thrombocytic thrombocytopenia (TTP)
-idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

14

When does idopathic thrombocytopenic purpuara occur?

-In childhood after a viral infection

15

Thrombocytic thrombocytopenia is a serious disorder of coagulation and is probably due to what?

-Endothelail damage

16

What is enlargement of the lymphoid tissue?

-Lymphoid hyperplasia

17

Aggregates of lymphoid tissue are most commonly seen where?

-Oropharynx
-Soft palate
-Lateral tongue
-Floor of mouth

18

With acute infection, the lymphoid hyperplasia appear as what?

-Enlarged, tender, soft, freely movable nodules

19

With chronic infections, the lymphoid hyperplasia appear as what?

-Enlarged, nontender, firm, freely movable nodules

20

If you have tonsillar asymmetry what could is possibly be?

-Metastatic tumor
-Lymphoma
-Lymphoid hyperplasia

21

Agranulocytosis means what?

-Without granulocytes (usually neutrophils)

22

What does agranulocytosis lead to/have associated with it?

-Neutropenia
-Lymphopenia

23

What is agranulocytosis induced by?

-Drugs for anticancer treatments

24

What are the oral symptoms of agranulocytosis?

-Necrotizing, deep, punched-out ulcerations of the buccal mucosa, tongue and palate

25

What represents several types of malignancies of hematopoietic stem cell derivation?

-Leukemia

26

What is the philadelphia chromosome related to?

-Chronic myeloid leukemia has a translocation of the chormosomal material between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22

27

What are some environmental factors that might lead to leukemia?

-Exposure to pesticides and or benzene
-Ionizing radiation

28

What type of leukemia is a more common childhood malignancies?

-Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

29

What is the most common type of leukemia?

-Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (occurs in adulthood)

30

What virus can cause leukemia?

-Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1

31

The leukemic cells may infiltrate the oral soft tissues to produce a boggy (doughy), non-tender swelling that is termed what?

-Granulocytic sarcoma

32

What are langerhan cells?

-Dendritic mononuclear cells normally found in the epidermis, mucosa, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

33

T/F Langherhans cells are antigen presenting cells

True

34

What is eosinophilic granuloma of bone?

-One or multiple lesions with no visceral involvement

35

What are the subtypes of langerhan cell histiocyotsis?

-Eosinophilic granuloma of bone
-Acute disseminated histiocytosis
-Chronic disseminated histiocytosis

36

What is acute disseminated histiocytosis?

-Disease involves bone, skin, and viscera

37

What is acute disseminated histiocytosis aka?

-Letterer-Siwe disease

38

What is chronic disseminated histiocytosis?

-Disease involves bone, skin, and viscera

39

What is Chronic disseminated histiocytosis aka?

-Hand-Schuller-Christian disease

40

Where are langerhan cell histiocytosis most commonly found?

-Skull
-Ribs
-Vertebrae
-Mandible

41

In an X-ray what might make you think of langerhan cell histiocytosis?

-Sharply demarcated "punched-out" radiolucencies
-Occasionally may be ill-defined
-Mandibular lesions appear "scooped out" because the superficial alveolar bone is destroyed
-Extensive alveolar bone involvement that looks like a tooth floating in air

42

Langerhan cells contain rod shaped cytoplasmic structures known as what?

-Birbeck granules (found via electronmicroscopy)

43

Identification of what cell is necessary to confirm langerhan cell histiocytosis?

-Lesional Langerhan cell

44

More than half of patients with Langerhan cell histiocytosis are how old?

-Younger than 15

45

What is a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder?

-Hodgkin's lymphoma

46

What are the neoplastic cells in Hodgkin's lymphoma known as?

-Reed-Sternberg cells

47

What virus is associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma?

-EBV (Epstein Barr Virus)

48

Where does Hodgkin's lymphoma usually begin?

-Lymph nodes

49

What gender is Hodgkin's lymphoma more common in?

-Males

50

Where are most of the lymph nodes involved in Hodgkin's lymphoma at?

-Cervical and supraclavicular nodes

51

What do Reed-sternberg cells appear as?

-Owl's eyes

52

What is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma aka?

-Lymphoma

53

What type of cell are most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas from?

-B-lymphocyte origin

54

Intraoral soft tissue lesions in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma typically appear as nontender diffuse swelling affecting what locations?

-Posterior hard palate
-Gingiva
-Buccal vestibule

55

Swelling in non-hodgkins' lymphoma are characteristically what when applying pressure?

-Boggy

56

What is the most common type of lymphoma of the oral cavity?

-Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

57

Mycosis fungoides is so named because it clinically resembles what?

-Fungal infection

58

What is the most common cutaneous lymphoma?

-Mycosis fungoides

59

What type of cell is mycosis fungoides?

-A T cell lymphoma

60

What is an aggressive expression of mycosis fungoides that represents dermatopathic T cell leukemia?

-Sezary syndrome

61

What is a propensity to invade the epidermis of the skin known as?

-Epidermotropism

62

What is Epidermotropism associated with?

-Mycosis Fungoides

63

The atypical lymphocytes in mycosis fungoides form small intraepithelial aggregates termed what?

-Pautrier's microabscesses

64

What is a malignancy of B cell origin?

-Burkitt's lymphoma

65

What virus is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma?

EBV

66

What is the average age of someone who gets burkitt's lymphoma?

-7

67

What is a "starry-sky" pattern in histology associated with?

-Burkitt's lymphoma

68

What is the cell that creates the "starry-sky" pattern in Burkitt's lymphoma?

-Macrophages