chapter 13: memory, learning, and development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 13: memory, learning, and development Deck (84):
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learning

the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information, behavior patterns, or abilities, characterized by modifications of behavior as a result of practice, study, or experience

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memory

1. the ability to retain information, based on the mental processes of learning or encoding, retention across some interval of time (consolidation), and the retrieval or reactivation of the memory; 2. the specific information stored in the brain

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amnesia

severe impairment of memory

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retrograde amnesia

difficulty in retrieving memories formed before the onset of amnesia

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patient H.M.

a patient who, because of damage to medial temporal lobe structure, was unable to encode new declarative memories

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anterograde amnesia

difficulty in forming new memories beginning with the onset of the disorder

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hippocampus

a medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory

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declarative memory

a memory that can be stated or described

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nondeclarative memory/procedural memory

a memory that is shown by performance rather than by conscious recollection

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delayed non-matching-to-sample task

a test in which the subject must respond to the unfamiliar stimulus of a pair

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patient N.A.

a patient who is unable to encode new declarative memories, because of damage to the dorsomedizal thalamus and the mammillary bodies

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dorsomedial thalamus

a limbic system structure that is connected to the hippocampus

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mammillary body

one of a pair of limbic system structures that are connected to the hippocampus

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Korsakoff's syndrome

a memory disorder, related to a thiamine deficiency, that is generally associated with chronic alcoholism; commonly accompanied with confabulation

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confabulate

to fill in a gap in memory with a falsification

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patient K.C.

a patient who sustained damage to the cortex that renders him unable to form and retrieve new episodic memories

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episodic memory

memory of a particular incident or a particular time and place; also called autobiographical memory

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semantic memory

generalized declarative memory, such as knowing the meaning of a word without knowing where or when you learned the word

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skill learning

the process of learning to perform a challenging task simply by repeating it over and over

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basal ganglia

a group of forebrain nuclei, including the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen, found deep within the cerebral hemispheres; crucial for skill learning

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priming

the phenomenon by which exposure to a stimulus facilitates subsequent responses to the same or a similar stimulus

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associative learning

a type of learning in which an association is formed between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response; includes both classical and instrumental conditioning

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classical conditioning

a type of association in which an originally neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS) – through pairing with another stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus, or US) that elicits a particular response – acquires the power to elicit that response when presented alone; response elicited by the US is called an unconditioned response (UR), a response elicited by the CS alone is called a conditioned response (CR)

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cerebellum

a structure located at the back of the brain, dorsal to the pons, that is involved in the central regulation of movement and in classical conditioning

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instrumental conditioning or operant conditioning

a form of associative learning in which the likelihood that an act (instrumental response) will be performed depends on the consequences (reinforcing stimuli) that follow it

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cognitive map

a mental representation of the relative spatial organization of objects and information

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place cell

a neuron in the hippocampus that selectively fires when the animal is in a particular location

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iconic memory

a very brief type of memory that stores the sensory impression of a scene

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short-term memory (STM) or working memory

a form of memory that usually lasts only seconds, or as long as rehearsal continues

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long-term memory (LTM)

an enduring form of memory that lasts days, weeks, months, or years and has a very large capacity

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encoding

the first process in the memory system, in which the information entering sensory channels is passed into short-term memory

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consolidation

the second process in the memory system, in which information in short-term memory is transferred to long-term memory

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retrieval

the third process of the memory system, in which a stored memory is used by an organism

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primacy effect

the superior performance seen in a memory task for items at the start of a list; it is usually attributed to long-term memory

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recency effect

the superior performance seen in a memory task for items at the end of a list; it is usually attributed to short-term memory

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memory trace

a persistent change in the brain that reflects the storage of memory

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reconsolidation

the return of a memory trace to stable long-term storage after it has been temporarily made changeable during the process of recall

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neuroplasticity

the ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment

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standard condition (SC)

the usual environment for laboratory rodents, with very few animals in a cage and adequate food and water, but no complex stimulation

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impoverished condition (IC)

an environment for laboratory rodents in which animals are housed singly in a small cage without complex stimuli; also called isolated condition

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enriched condition (EC)

an environment for laboratory rodents in which animals are grot-housed with a wide variety of stimulus objects

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nonassociative learning

a type of learning in which presentation of a particular stimulus alters the strength or probability of a response according to the strength and temporal spacing of that stimulus; includes habituation and sensitization

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habituation

a form of non associative learning in which an organism becomes less responses following repeated presentation of a stimulus

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Hebbian synapse

a synapse that is strengthened when it successfully drives the postsynaptic cell

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tetanus

an intense volley of action potentials

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long-term potentiation

a stable and enduring increase in the effectiveness of synapses following repeated strong stimulation

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dentate gyrus

a strip of gray matter in the hippocampal formation

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glutamate

an amino acid transmitter, the most common excitatory transmitter

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NMDA receptor

a glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist NMDA and that is both ligand-gated and voltage-sensitive

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AMPA receptor

a glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist AMPA

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retrograde transmitter

a neurotransmitter that is released by the postsynaptic region, diffuses back across the synapse, and alters the functioning of the presynaptic neuron

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ectoderm

the outer cellular layer of the developing fetus, giving rise to the skin and the nervous system

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neural tube

an embryonic structure with subdivisions that correspond to the future forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain

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forebrain

the front division of the brain, which, in the mature vertebrate, contains the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus

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midbrain

the middle division of the brain

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hindbrain

the rear division of the brain, which, in the mature vertebrate, contains the cerebellum, pons, and medulla

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embryo

the earliest stage in a developing animal

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fetus

a developing individual after the embryo stage

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neurogenesis

the mitotic division of nonneural cells to produce neurons

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mitosis

the process of division of somatic cells that involves duplication of DNA

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ventricular zone

a region lining the cerebral ventricles that displays mitosis, providing neurons early in development and glial cells throughout life

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cell migration

the movement of cells from site of origin to final location

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gene expression

the process by which a cell makes an mRNA transcript of a particular gene

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cell differentiation

the developmental stage in which cells acquire distinctive characteristics, such as those of neurons, as a result of expressing particular genes

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synaptogenesis

the establishment of synaptic connections as axons and dendrites grow

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cell-cell interaction

the general process during development in which once cell affects the differentiation of other, usually neighboring cells

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stem cell

a cell that is undifferentiated and therefore can take on the fate of any cell that a donor organism can produce

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adult neurogenesis

the creation of new neurons in the brain of an adult

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cell death or apoptosis

the developmental process during which "surplus" cells die

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death gene

a gene that is expressed only when a cell becomes committed to natural cell death (apoptosis)

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neurotrophic factor

a target-derived chemical that acts as if it "feeds" certain neurons to help them survive

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synapse rearrangement

the loss of some synapses and the development of others; a refinement of synaptic connections that is often seen in development

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genotype

all the genetic information that one specific individual has inherited

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phenotype

the sum of an individual's physical characteristic at one particular time

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phenylketonuria (PKU)

an inherited disorder of protein metabolism in which the absence of an enzyme leads to a toxic buildup of certain compounds, causing intellectual disability

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clones

asexually produced organisms that are genetically identical

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epigenetics

the study of factors that affect gene expression without making any changes in the nucleotide sequence of the genes themselves

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methylation

a chemical modification of DNA that does not affect the nucleotide sequence of a gene but makes that gene less likely to be expressed

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Alzheimer's disease

a form of dementia that may appear in middle age but is more frequent among the aged

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dementia

drastic failure of cognitive ability, including memory failure and loss of orientation

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amyloid plaque

a small are of the brain that has abnormal cellular and chemical patterns; correlates with dementia

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beta-amyloid

a protein that accumulates in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease

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neurofibrillary tangle

an abnormal whorl of neurofilaments within nerve cells that is seen in Alzheimer's disease

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tau

a protein associated with neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease