chapter 13: memory, learning, and development Flashcards Preview

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learning

the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information, behavior patterns, or abilities, characterized by modifications of behavior as a result of practice, study, or experience

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memory

1. the ability to retain information, based on the mental processes of learning or encoding, retention across some interval of time (consolidation), and the retrieval or reactivation of the memory; 2. the specific information stored in the brain

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amnesia

severe impairment of memory

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retrograde amnesia

difficulty in retrieving memories formed before the onset of amnesia

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patient H.M.

a patient who, because of damage to medial temporal lobe structure, was unable to encode new declarative memories

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anterograde amnesia

difficulty in forming new memories beginning with the onset of the disorder

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hippocampus

a medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory

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declarative memory

a memory that can be stated or described

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nondeclarative memory/procedural memory

a memory that is shown by performance rather than by conscious recollection

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delayed non-matching-to-sample task

a test in which the subject must respond to the unfamiliar stimulus of a pair

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patient N.A.

a patient who is unable to encode new declarative memories, because of damage to the dorsomedizal thalamus and the mammillary bodies

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dorsomedial thalamus

a limbic system structure that is connected to the hippocampus

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mammillary body

one of a pair of limbic system structures that are connected to the hippocampus

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Korsakoff's syndrome

a memory disorder, related to a thiamine deficiency, that is generally associated with chronic alcoholism; commonly accompanied with confabulation

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confabulate

to fill in a gap in memory with a falsification

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patient K.C.

a patient who sustained damage to the cortex that renders him unable to form and retrieve new episodic memories

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episodic memory

memory of a particular incident or a particular time and place; also called autobiographical memory

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semantic memory

generalized declarative memory, such as knowing the meaning of a word without knowing where or when you learned the word

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skill learning

the process of learning to perform a challenging task simply by repeating it over and over

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basal ganglia

a group of forebrain nuclei, including the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen, found deep within the cerebral hemispheres; crucial for skill learning

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priming

the phenomenon by which exposure to a stimulus facilitates subsequent responses to the same or a similar stimulus

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associative learning

a type of learning in which an association is formed between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response; includes both classical and instrumental conditioning

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classical conditioning

a type of association in which an originally neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS) – through pairing with another stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus, or US) that elicits a particular response – acquires the power to elicit that response when presented alone; response elicited by the US is called an unconditioned response (UR), a response elicited by the CS alone is called a conditioned response (CR)

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cerebellum

a structure located at the back of the brain, dorsal to the pons, that is involved in the central regulation of movement and in classical conditioning

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instrumental conditioning or operant conditioning

a form of associative learning in which the likelihood that an act (instrumental response) will be performed depends on the consequences (reinforcing stimuli) that follow it

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cognitive map

a mental representation of the relative spatial organization of objects and information

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place cell

a neuron in the hippocampus that selectively fires when the animal is in a particular location

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iconic memory

a very brief type of memory that stores the sensory impression of a scene

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short-term memory (STM) or working memory

a form of memory that usually lasts only seconds, or as long as rehearsal continues

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long-term memory (LTM)

an enduring form of memory that lasts days, weeks, months, or years and has a very large capacity