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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Nerves of Steel Deck (85):
1

Cerebrospinal fluid tap (also called CSF tap)

Removal of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a needle or catheter into the cisterna magna or lumbosacral area.

2

Cisterna magna

Subarachnoid space located between the caudal surface of the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata.

3

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Procedure in which radio waves and a strong magnetic field pass through the patient and show the internal body structures in three-dimensional views. Used for imaging the brain, spine, and joints.

4

Computed axial tomography (CT or CAT scan)

Procedure in which ionizing radiation with computer assistance passes through the patient and shows the internal body structures in cross-sectioned views.

5

Myelography

Diagnostic study of the spinal cord after injection of contrast material.

6

Myelogram

Record of the spinal cord after injection of contrast material.

7

Pupillary light reflex

Response of pupil to a bright light source

8

Ataxia

Without coordination; "stumbling"

9

Catalepsy

a condition in which consciousness and feeling seem to be temporarily lost, and the muscles become rigid: it may occur in epilepsy, schizophrenia, etc.
Waxing rigidity of muscles accompanied by a trancelike state

10

Cataplexy

A debilitating condition in which a person suddenly feels weak and collapses at times of strong emotion such as during laughter, anger, fear, or surprise. In so collapsing, people with cataplexy may injure themselves. For example, laughter and other emotions may trigger a reflex that can bring many of the muscles of the body to the point of collapse. Cataplexy often affects people who have narcolepsy.
Sudden attacks of muscular weakness and hypotonia triggered by an emotional response

11

Cerebellar hypoplasia

Smaller-than-normal cerebellum (seen in cats secondary to feline panleukopenia virus, which leads to incoordination)

12

Cervical vertebral malformation (also called wobbler's syndrome)

Abnormal formation or instability of the caudal cervical vertebrae that causes ataxia and incoordination; seen more often in horses and dogs

13

Myoclonus (also called chorea)

Myoclonus refers to a quick, involuntary muscle jerk. For example, hiccups are a form of myoclonus.
Repetitive, rhythmic contraction of limb or facial muscles; usually the result of distemper viral infection in dogs

14

Choriomeningitis

Inflammation of the choroid plexus and meninges.
(The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels in each ventricle of the brain. It is derived from the pia mater and produces the cerebrospinal fluid.)

15

Conscious proprioceptive deficit (abbrev. CP deficit; also called knuckling)

Neurologic defect in which the animal appears not to know where its limbs are

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Decerebration

Condition of loss of mental functions caused by damage to the midbrain

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Demyelination

Destruction or loss of myelin

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Discospondylitis

Destructive inflammatory disorder that involves the intervertebral discs, vertebral end-plates, and vertebral bodies

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Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

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Encephalocele

Herniation of the brain through a gap in the skull

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Encephalomalacia

Abnormal softening of the brain

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Encephalopathy

Any disease of the brain

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Epilepsy

Recurrent seizures of non-systemic origin or of intracranial disease

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Idiopathic (prefix idio- means individual)

Unknown cause or disease of an individual

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Hematoma

Mass or collection of blood

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Epidural hematoma

Collection of blood above or superficial to the dura mater

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Subdural hematoma

Collection of blood below (deep to) the dura mater and above (superficial to) the arachnoid membrane.

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Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one side of the body

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Horner's syndrome

Collection of signs relating to injury of the cervical sympathetic innervation to the eye; signs include sinking of the eyeball (enopthalmus), ptosis of the upper eyelid, pupil constriction, and proplapse of the third eyelid

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Hydrocephalus

Abnormally elevated amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain ("water on the brain")

31

Hyperesthesia

Excessive sensitivity

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Hyperkinesis

Increased motor function or activity

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Intervertebral disc disease

Condition of pain and neurologic deficits resulting from the displacement of part or all of the material in the disc located between the vertebrae

34

Meningioma

Benign tumor of the meninges

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Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges

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Microcephaly

Abnormally small skull

37

Myelitis

Inflammation of the spinal cord (or bone marrow)

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Myelopathy

Disease of the spinal cord (or bone marrow)

39

Hemiparesis

Weakness on one side of the body

40

Paraparesis

Weakness of the lower body in bipeds or of hindlimbs in quadrupeds

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Neuralgia

Nerve pain

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Neuritis

Inflammation of the nerves

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Opisthotonos

Tetanic spasm in which the head and tail are bent dorsally and the back is arched

44

Paralysis

Loss of voluntary movement or immobility

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Paraplegia

Paralysis of the lower body in bipeds or of hindlimbs in quadrupeds

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Paresthesia

Abnormal sensation

47

Equine laryngeal hemiplegia or roaring

Noisy respiration caused by air passing through a narrowed larynx in horses due to nerve fiber degeneration of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve

48

Seizure (also called convulsions)

Sudden, involuntary contraction of some muscles caused by a brain disturbance

49

Syncope

Fainting; sudden fall in blood pressure or cardiac systole resulting in cerebral anemia and loss of consciousness

50

Tetraplegia (also called quadriplegia)

Paralysis of all four limbs

51

Vestibular disease

Neurologic disorder characterized by head tilt, nystagmus, rolling, falling, and circling

52

Analgesia

Without pain; used to describe pain relief

53

Endorphins

Natural, opioid-like chemicals that are produced in the brain and that raise the pain threshold

54

Anesthesia

Absence of sensation

55

Disc fenestration

Removal of intervertebral disc material by perforating and scraping out its contents

56

Laminectomy

Surgical removal of the lamina of the vertebra to relieve pressure on the spinal cord

57

Neurectomy

Surgical removal of a nerve

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Preictal or Aura

Period before a seizure

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Ictus

Attack or actual seizure

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Postictal

Period after seizure

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Ipsi

Prefix meaning the same (i.e. side)

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Contra

Prefix meaning opposite (i.e. side)

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Ipsilateral

Means on the same side

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Contralateral

Means on the opposite side

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BAR

bright, alert, responsive

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Deep state of unconsciousness

Coma

67

Awake, aware, responsive, alert

Conscious

68

Alert

Awake, aware, responsive, conscious

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Disorientation

Condition in which the animal appears mentally confused

70

Lethargy

Drowsiness, indifference, listlessness

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Obtunded

Depressed

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Stupor

Impaired consciousness with unresponsiveness to stimuli

73

Cranial nerve I

Olfactory
- Smell
- sensory

74

Cranial nerve II

Optic
- Vision
- sensory

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Cranial nerve III

Oculomotor
- Eye movement, pupil size, focusing lens
- motor

76

Cranial nerve IV

Trochlear
- Eye movement
- motor

77

Cranial nerve V

Trigeminal
- Sensations from the head and teeth, chewing
- sensory and motor

78

Cranial nerve VI

Abducent
- Eye movement
- motor

79

Cranial nerve VII

Facial
- Face and scalp movement, salivation, tears, taste
- sensory and motor

80

Cranial nerve VIII

Acoustic
- Balance, hearing
- sensory

81

Cranial nerve IX

Glossopharyngeal - Tongue movement, swallowing, salivation, taste (both sensory and motor)

82

Cranial nerve X

Vagus (wanderer)
- Sensory from GI tract and respiratory tree; motor to the larynx, pharynx, parasympathetic; motor to the abdominal and thoracic organs
- sensory and motor

83

Cranial nerve XI

Accessory
- Head movement, accessory motor with vagus
- motor

84

Cranial nerve XII

Hypoglossal
- Tongue movement
- motor

85

Nystagmus

Involuntary, rhythmic movement of the eye