Chapter 13 Respiratory Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Respiratory Emergencies Deck (50):
1

A collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall that may compress the lung.

pleural effusion

2

Inflammation of the bronchioles that usually occurs in children younger than 2 years and is often caused by the respiratory syncytial virus.

bronchiolitis

3

A substance that causes an allergic reaction.

allergen

4

A slow process of dilation and disruption of the airways and alveoli caused by chronic bronchial obstruction.

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

5

This syndrome occurs in the absence of other physical problems. The respirations of a person who is experiencing this syndrome may be as high as 40 shallow breaths/min or as low as only 20 very deep breaths/min.

hyperventilation syndrome (panic attack)

6

Rapid or deep breathing that lowers the blood carbon dioxide level below normal.

hyperventilation

7

A virus that causes an infection of the lungs and breathing passages; can lead to other serious illnesses that affect the lungs or heart, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. It is highly contagious and spread through droplets.

respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

8

Potentially life-threatening viral infection that usually starts with flulike symptoms.

severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

9

Irritation of the major lung passageways from infectious disease or irritants such as smoke.

chronic bronchitis

10

A dangerous condition in which the body tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen.

hypoxia

11

Sharp, stabbing pain in the chest wall that is worsened by a deep breath or other chest wall movement; often caused by inflammation or irritation of the pleura.

pleuritic chest pain

12

A condition characterized by a chronically high blood level of carbon dioxide in which the respiratory center no longer responds to high blood levels of carbon dioxide.

carbon dioxide retention.

13

A blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that travels to a blood vessel where it causes a blockage.

embolus

14

Normal breath sounds made by air moving through the bronchi.

bronchial breath sounds

15

A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.

pulmonary embolism

16

The production of whistling sounds during expiration such as occurs in asthma and bronchiolitis.

wheezing

17

An extreme, life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that may include shock and respiratory failure.

anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock)

18

An inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory system that may cause a partial airway obstruction and is characterized by a barking cough; usually seen in children.

croup

19

A chronic bacterial disease, caused by Mycobacterium _________, that usually affects the lungs

tuberculosis (TB)

20

Normal breath sounds made made by air moving in out of the alveoli.

vesicular breath sounds

21

Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways.

rhonchi

22

A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drop in the oxygen level in the blood.

hypoxic drive

23

A high-pitched noise heard primarily on inspiration.

stridor

24

A respiratory device that holds liquid medicine that is turned into a fine mist. The patient inhales the medication into the airways and lungs as a treatment for conditions like asthma.

small-volume nebulizer

25

An acute or chronic inflammation of the lung that may damage lung tissue; usually associated with cough and production of sputum and, depending on its cause, sometimes fever.

bronchitis

26

Collapse of the alveolar air spaces of the lungs.

atelectasis

27

An acute spasm of the smaller air passages, called bronchioles, associated with excessive mucus production and with swelling of the mucous lining of the respiratory passages.

ashtma

28

A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space.

pneumothorax

29

A pathologic condition that results from the accumlation of acids in the body.

acidosis

30

Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.

dyspnea

31

A disease of the lungs in which there is extreme dilation and eventual destruction of the pulmonary alveoli with poor exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; it is one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

emphysema

32

A buildup of fluid in the lungs, usually as a result of congestive heart failure.

pulmonary edema

33

An inflammation/infection of the lung from a bacterial, viral, or fungal cause.

pneumonia

34

Occurs when new cases of a disease occur in a human population and substantially exceed what is "expected, " based on recent experience.

epidemic

35

An odorless, highly poisonous gas that results from incomplete oxidation of carbon in combustion.

carbon monoxide

36

A virus that has crossed the animal/human barrier and has infected humans, recently reaching a pandemic level with the H1N1 strain.

influenza type

37

An outbreak that occurs on a global scale.

pandemic

38

Inflammation of the lung

pneumonitis

39

A disease in which the epiglottis becomes inflamed and enlarged and may cause an upper airway obstruction.

epiglottitis

40

A viral infection usually associated with swollen nasal mucous membranes and the production of fluid from the sinuses and nose.

common cold

41

The process of delivering oxygen to the body by diffusion from the alveoli following inhalation into the lungs.

oxygenation

42

An allergic response usually to outdoor airborne allergens such as pollen or sometimes indoor allergens such as dust mites or pet dander; also called allergic rhinitis.

hay fever

43

A crackling, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles.

rales

44

An inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord; can be highly contagious.

meningococcal meningitis

45

The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.

respiration

46

A miniature spray canister used to direct medications through the mouth and into the lungs.

metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

47

A bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body and is often resistant to commonly used antibiotics; can be found on the skin, in surgical wounds, in the bloodstream, lungs, and urinary tract.

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

48

The buildup of excess base (lack of acids) in the body fluids.

alkalosis

49

An airborne bacterial infection that affects mostly children younger than 6 years. Patients will be feverish and exhibit a "whoop" sound on insipiration after a coughing attack; highly contagious through droplet infection.

pertussis (whooping cough)

50

An infectious disease in which a membrane forms, lining the pharynx; this lining can severely obstruct the passage of air into the larynx.

diphtheria