Chapter 13 - Special Senses Flashcards Preview

BIOLOGY - SPRING 2017 > Chapter 13 - Special Senses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Special Senses Deck (58):
1

This nerve conducts action potentials - that produce the sense of SMELL

Olfactory (CN I)

2

Smell is a highly emotional sense as it bypasses the Thalamus, to be processed by this LIMBIC structure

Amygdala

3

Sensory neurons synapse with interneurons in this structure, just deep into the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

Olfactory BULB

4

These cells (located in the nasal epithelium) develop into and replace sensory neurons related to SMELL

Basal cells

5

The diagnostic term for bloody nose

epitaxis

6

Long, specialized cilia on sensory cells

Hairs

7

Type of sensory neuron that is necessary to conduct the senses of TASTE and SMELL

Chemoreceptors

8

Chorda Tympani is the branch of this CN - which conducts the sense of TASTE from the ANTERIOR 2/3 of the tongue, through the middle ear of the temporal lobe

Facial (CN VII)

9

A bacterial/viral infection of this TRANSPARENT LINING of the ANT. EYE and EYELIDS is named "pink eye"

Conjunctiva

10

Gland that produces tears

Lacrimal

11

This PALSY blocks the formation of tears and paralyses 1/2 of the face

Bells

12

Nerve that innervates the superior oblique muscle, causing the eye to look DOWN and OUT

Trochlear (CN IV)

13

This AVASCULAR layer of the eye is the anterior CONTINUATION OF THE SCLERA - and is the most commonly transplanted human tissue

Cornea

14

The dilator pupillae muscles of this PIGMENTED OCULAR structure - contract to DILATE THE PUPIL

Iris

15

This AVASCULAR, TRANSPARENT BICONVEX DISK - is composed of 2 layers of living cells, and is the only structure that is able to CHANGE ITS SHAPE in order to FOCUS LIGHT

Lens

16

Degeneration of this STRUCTURE WITHIN THE CENTRAL RETINA - results in the loss of CENTRAL VISION as the eye ages

Macula

17

Sudden, painless and permanent blindness can occur d/t - Aqueous Humor building up in the anterior chamber of the eye, INCREASING OCULAR PRESSURE

Glaucoma

18

The BENDING of LIGHT RAYS - to produce foculsed and clear vision

Re-FRACTION

19

Simultaneous MEDIAL ROTATION OF BOTH EYES - in order to form a singe, focused image

Convergence

20

In order to focus on a CLOSE- UP object, this process involves CONTRACTION of CILIARY MUSCLES d/t - parasympathetc stimulation of CNIII - causing the LENS to become more SPHERICAL

Accomodation
(CNIII, Oculomotor)

21

These PHOTORECEPTORS are responsible for peripheral LOW-LIGHT, NON-COLOR vision

Rods

22

This visual PIGMENT, stored in double-layerd discs within the Cones - allows for COLORED VISION

Iodopsin

23

While most people have this AMINO ACID in their Cones that see RED - 40% of people substitute the amino acid, Alanine

Serine

24

These RETINAL cells synapse with photoreceptor cells and bipolar cells - ALLOWING US TO SEE CONTRAST

Horizontal cells

25

Inputs from these VISUAL FIELDS, becomes distorted or lost d/t a Pituitary Adenoma

Temporal (visual fields)

26

Nasal retinal FIBERS CROSS this optic structure

Chiasm

27

This optic structure CONDUCTS VISUAL INPUT from the THALAMUS to the OCCIPITAL CORTEX

Radiation

28

A condition of weak/paralyzed extraocular muscles - which causes DIPLOPIA, and is nicknamed "lazy eye"

Strabismus
(TX: focusing exercises)

29

Removal and replacement of a LENS CLOUDED BY DENATURED PROTEINS is the surgical treatment for this very common visual disorder

Cataract

30

Aka earlobe/pinna, this structure FUNNELS sound waves into the EXTERNAL ACOUSTIC MEATUS

Auricle

31

Aka earwax, this modified sebum PROTECTS the external acoustic meatus, and PREVENTS foreign objects from reaching the delicate Tympanic Membrane

Cerumen

32

Aka eardrum, this CONDUCTS sound waves as VIBRATIONS - to the Malleus of the middle ear

Tympanic Membrane

33

The THREE smallest bones in the body, located MIDDLE ear

Ossicles

34

This ossicle FITS INTO OVAL WINDOW - conducting and magnifying SOUND WAVES INTO THE PERILYMPH

Stapes

35

Sound waves must travel through this organ (shaped as a snail shell) - in order to produce the sense of HEARING

Cochlea

36

Fluid that fills the
Cochlear Duct
Utricle
Saccule, and
Semicircular Canals

Endolymph

37

Mechanoreceptors depolarize, as GATING SPRINGS on stereocilia OPEN THESE ION CHANNELS

Potassium

38

The tips of the longest sterocilia are embedded in this IMMOVABLE GELATINOUS SHELF/MEMBRANE within the Cochlear Duct

Tectorial

39

Action potentials that will be processed as hearing are produced - when the INNER HAIR CELLS release this NEUROTRANSMITTER

Glutamate

40

Units that measure the AMPLITUDE/VOLUME of a sound wave

Decibels (db)

41

Sounds over __ db, DESTROY INNER HAIR CELLS

100 db

42

Sounds over __ db, PRODUCE PAIN

125 db

43

The Oval window fuctions a s microphone - whereas the __ window DAMPENS THE SOUND WAVES to PREVENT DAMAGE AND ECHO

Round window

44

Low-pitch sounds reach the __ of the basilar membrane

apex

45

High-pitch sounds __ the basilar membrane, near the __ of the Cochlea.

Cross - the basilar membrane
Base - of the Cochlea

46

PITCH is measured in units called __

Hertx (Hz)

47

This nerve conducts action potentials related to both HEARING and BALANCE - from the inner ear to the temporal lobe via the Thalamus

Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII)

48

These structures within the midbrain - produce the SOUND ATTENUATION REFLEX, and cause you to reflexively look towards something you hear

Colliculi

49

Structure that transmits sensory information related to ACCELERATION and GRAVITY

Vestibule

50

These rocks in the head slide:
back and forth - in response to ACCELERATION
up and down - in response to GRAVITY

Otoliths

51

When stereocilia bend toward this stucture - ACTION POTENTIALS related to STATIC EQUILIBRIUM are produced

Kinocilium

52

The SEMICIRCULAR CANALS interpret sensory information related to this FORM OF EQUILIBRIUM

Dynamic (equilibrium)

53

This GELATINOUS MASS waves in the ENDOLYMPH of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS - bending the sterocilia of the inner hair cells located in the Crista Ampularis

Cupula

54

Type of sickness as a result of TOO FEW SENSORY INPUTS - to determin POSITION and BALANCE

Space sickness

55

DARTING of the eyes - d/t a DYNAMIC DISEQUILIBRIUM; may be normal or pathologic

Nystagmus

56

Hearing loss of the aged - that occurs d/t the DESTRUCTION OF INNER HAIR CELLS

Presbyacusis

57

A condition known as "ringing of the ears"

Tinnitus

58

A sense of the ENVIRONMENT SPINNING - rather than a senss of lightheaded dizziness, often diagnosed as the incurable Meniere's disease

Vertigo