Chapter 13 - Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Study Guide Deck (92):
1

Histoglogic COMPONENTS of the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM

Olfactory Hair Cells
Basal Cells
Support Cells
Cribriform Plate
Olfactory Bulb

2

Odorants must first ______ in order to reach the Olfactory Receptors (on olfactory hairs)

be disosolved in fluid (mucus)

3

When odorant binds to its receptor, a ____ is activated, As a result, _____ opens

G protein (is activated)
Na+ and Ca2+ Channels (open)

4

7 primary odors

1. Camphoraceous (moth balls)
2. Musky
3. Floral
4. Peppermint
5. Ethereal
6. Pungent
7. Putrid

5

Olfactory NEURONS and EPITHELIUM die/replenished by _____ every 2 months

Basal cells

6

Once an odorant binds to its receptor, the receptor accomodates and does not respond to another odorant for some time

***

7

Olfactory neurons form CNI - They synapse with interneurons to form the __ __

Olfactory Tracts (in olfactory bulb)

8

Olfactory Tracts terminate in __ and __

1. Olfactory CORTEX
2. AMYGDALA (in temporal lobe)

9

Olfaction: Feedback loops inhibit transmission - leading to adaptation with prolonged exposure

***

10

Taste associated with Na+

salty

11

Taste associated with CARBOHYDRATES, SUGAR, PROTEINS

sweet

12

Taste associated with GLUTAMATE

umami

13

Taste associated with ACID

sour

14

Taste associated with BASES

bitter

15

3 specialized epithelial cells of each TASTE BUD

1. Taste cells (sensory) - with taste hairs & pore
2. Basal cells (nonsensory)
3. Supporting cells (nonsensory)

16

__ dissolve in saliva to enter the taste pores

Tastants

17

Tastants bind to G protein receptors - causing taste cells to __

depolarize (Na+ / H+ Channels open)

18

Taste from the Anterior 2/3 of the tongue is carried by CN __

CN VII - Facial (Chorda Tympani)

19

Taste from the Posterior 1/3 of the tongue and superior pharynx is carried by CN __

CN IX - Glossopharyngeal

20

Taste sensation from the Epiglottis is carried by CN __

CN X - Vagus

21

Taste: CNVII, CNIX, and CNX extend from the Taste Buds to nuclei in the __ __. Fibers cross and extend to the __.

Cranial Nerves from Taste Buds >
Medulla Oblongata >
Thalamus

22

Taste: Neurons from the Thalamus project to the __ and __

Insula
Frontal Cortex

23

Cells of taste buds have normal life span of ___

10 days

24

Accessory Structure: Prevents perspiration and helps shade eyes from direct sunlight

eyebrows

25

Eyelids: Five layers of tissue

1. Skin
2. Loose CT
3. Orbicularis Oculi ad Levator Palpebrae (muscle)
4. Tarsal Plate (Dense CT)
5. Conjunctiva

26

Eyelids/Eyelashes: Blink Reflex (functions)

1. Protects from foreign objects
2. Helps lubrication
3. Regulate amount of light entering

27

Modified sweat glands that open into hair follicles to keep eyelashes lubricated

Ciliary glands

28

When a Ciliary Gland becomes inflamed, it is called a __

sty

29

Glands near inner margins of the eyelids that produce sebum (sebaceous)

Tarsal glands

30

Infection of blockage of a Tarsal Gland is called ___

chalazion / meibomian cyst

31

Accessory Structure:
- Thin, transparent mucous membrane
- Covers inner surface of eyelids and anterior white surface of eye
- Reduces friction
- Barrier to entry of microorganisms

Conjunctiva

32

Eye muscle(s) that is/are innervated by CN III

CN III (Oculomotor):
Superior Rectus
Inferior Rectus
Medial Rectus
Inferior Oblique

33

Eye muscle(s) that is/are innervated by CN IV

CN IV (Trochlear):
Superior Oblique

34

Eye muscle(s) that is/are innervated by CN VI

CN VI (Abducent):
Lateral Rectus

35

CN that dilates and constricts the PUPIL

CN III, Oculomotor

36

Extrinsic Eye Muscle:
DEPRESSES and MEDIALLY deviates gaze

Inferior Rectus (CN III)

37

Extrinsic Eye Muscle:
MEDIALLY deviates gaze

Medial Rectus (CN III)

38

Extrinsic Eye Muscle:
ELEVATES and MEDIALLY deviates gaze

Superior Rectus (CN III)

39

Extrinsic Eye Muscle:
LATERALLY deviates gaze

Lateral Rectus (CN IV)

40

Extrinsic Eye Muscle:
ELEVATES and LATERALLY deviates gaze

Inferior Oblique (CN III)

41

Extrinsic Eye Muscle:
DEPRESSES and LATERALLY deviates gaze

Superior Oblique (CN IV)

42

Cranial Nerve that OPENS EYELID

CN III, Oculomotor

43

Cranial Nerve that CLOSES EYELID

CN VII, Facial

44

Structures located in the FIBEROUS Layer of the eyeball

1. Sclera (posterior 5/6th)
2. Cornea (anterior 1/6th)

45

Structures located in the VASCULAR Layer of the eyeball

1. Choroid (posterior)
2. Ciliary Body (anterior)
3. Iris (colored)

46

Helps maintain shape of eyeball
Protects internal structures
Provides attachment point for eye muscles

Sclera

47

Avascular
Transparent, permits light to enter eye
Repsonsible for most of the refraction of light

Cornea

48

Posterior Vascular Layer
Associated with Sclera
Consist of MELANIN-CONTAINING PIGMENT CELLS

Choroid

49

Ciliary Body consists of __ and __

Ciliary Ring (outer)
CiliarY Processes (inner)

50

___ __ attach the Ciliary Ring and Ciliary Processes to the LENS of the eye

Suspensory Ligments

51

Contraction of ciliary muscles can change the shape of __

the LENS ("accomodation")

52

Contractile structure
Mainly smooth muscle
Regulates amount of light by controlling size of the Pupil

Iris

53

3 Intrinsic Eye Muscles

1. Ciliary muscles
2. Sphincter pupillae
3. Dilator pupillae

54

- INNER LAYER of the eye
- 126 million photoreceptor cells
- ACTION POTENTIALS are generated/conducted as response to light

Retina

55

Near center of Posterior Retina
Small, Yellow spot (4mm)

Macula

56

- Small pit in the center of the Macula
- Highest concentration of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS in the Retina (most sensitive to light)

Fovea Centralis

57

White spot
Medial to Macula
Central Retinal Artery enters
Central Retinal Vein exits
Where axons converge to form CN II

Optic Disc

58

Does NOT contain Photoreceptor cells - does not respond to light - called the "blind spot"

Optic Disc

59

3 Chambers of the eye

1. Anterior
2. Posterior
3. Vitreous

60

The __ separates the Anterior and Posterior Chambers

Iris

61

The larger chamber that is posterior to the Lens

Vitreous

62

The Anterior and Posterior Chamber are located between the __

Cornea
Lens

63

Fluid that fills the Anterior and Posterior Chambers

Aqueous Humor

64

Transparent, jellylike substance that fills the Vitreous Chamber

Vitreous Humor

65

Helps maintain intraocular pressure (inflates, shapes)
REFRACTS light
Provides NUTRITION for Cornea

Aqueous Humor

66

Abnormal increase in intraocular pressure that results when the rate of production of aqueous humor exceeds its rate of removal

Glaucoma

67

Holds Lens and Retina in place
Inflates eye
Refraction of light
Slow turnover/production

Vitreous Humor

68

Avascular, Transparent, Biconvex Disc
Located behind Pupil
Changes shape to focus light

Lens

69

Light passing through the LENS is focused on the __

Retina

70

Lens: Cells on the Anterior Surface

Cuboidal Epithelial

71

Lens: Cells on the Posterior Surface

Columnar Epithelial (Lens Fibers)

72

Focusing SYSTEM of the eye

1. CORNEA
2. Aqueous Humor
3. LENS
4. Vitreous Humor

73

Light passing through the Focusing System is refracted, producing a __

Focal Point (FP)

74

In the normal eye, the focused image falls on the __

Retina

75

The image is __ and ___ because the light rays cross at the FP

Inverted
Reversed, right to left

76

NEAR VISION:
Ciliary muscles __
Lens __
Pupil __
Medial Rectus __

NEAR VISION:
Ciliary muscles CONTRACT
Lens THICKENS
Pupil CONSTRICTS
Medial Rectus CONTRACTS

77

DISTANCE VISION:
Ciliary muscles __
Lens __
Pupil __

DISTANCE VISION:
Ciliary muscles RELAX
Lens FLATTENED
Pupil DILATED

78

Nearsightedness
Correction: Concave/Convex Lens

Myopia
Correction: Concave Lens

79

Farsightedness
Correction: Concave/Convex Lens

Hyperopia
Correction: Convex Lens

80

Images are focused IN FRONT of the Retiba

Myopia

81

Images are focused behind the Retina when looking at a close object

Hyperopia

82

- Degeneration of the ACCOMODATION power of the eye
- Lens: Hard and less flexible

Presbyopia

83

Cornea and Lens is not uniformly curved
Image is not sharply focused

Astigmatism

84

Result from weak eye muscles
Diplopia
Lack of paralelism of light paths through the eye

Strabismus

85

Results from loss of Rod function or Retinal degeneration, Vitamin A deficiency.

Night Blindness

86

Structures of OUTER Ear

1. Auricle
2. Exteral Acoustic Meatus (passageway)
3. Tympanic Membrane

87

Structures of MIDDLE Ear

1. Ossicles (Malleus, Incus, Stapes)
2. Oval and Round Windows
3. Tensor Tympani and Stapedius
4. Eustachian Tube
5. Chorda Tympani (nerve)

88

Structures of the INNER Ear

1. Cochlea - Hearing
2. Vestibule -Static Balance
3. Semicircular canals - Dynamic Balance

89

INNER EAR: The bony labyrinth is lined with __

Endosteum

90

INNER EAR: Inside the bony labyrinth - is a similarly shaped but smaller set of tunnels and chambers called __

membranous labyrinth

91

The membranous labyrinth is filled with __

Endolymph, clear
(high K+, low Na+)

92

The space between the bony and membranous labyrinths is flled with __

perilymph
(similar to CSF)