Flashcards in chapter-14 Deck (326)
Define communication. (309)
The process of sharing ideas, information and messages withothers.
Most Air Force communication involves speakingand writing. T IF (309)
Name the three parts of every communication. (309)
The 1) sender; 2) message; and 3) audience.
In successful communication, what must the audiencedo besides receive the message? (309)
Interpret the message the way the sender intended.
The five core principles of good communication createthe acronym FOCUS. List them. (309-Fig)
1) Focused - address the whole issue, but only the issue; 2)organized - systematically present information and ideas; 3)clear - communicate with clarity and make each word count;4) understanding - understand your audience and its expectations;and 5) supported - use logic and support to make yourpoint.
When a communication is __ , the sender stays ontrack and has a clear idea of the purpose and objective.(309)
Well-organized material is presented in a logical,systematic manner. T/F (309)
When audiences become confused or impatient withunorganized communication, what might they underestimate?(309)
The information's value and your credibility.
What two related things must you do to communicateclearly? (309)
1) Understand the rules oflanguage (spelling, pronunciation,grammar, punctuation, etc.); and 2) get to the point.
When communicating, what must you understandabout your audience? (309)
Their current knowledge, views and level of interest in thetopic.
You've been asked to write a report. Name severalthings you must understand about it first. (309)
The expected format and length of the response, due date,level of formality and any staffing requirements.
What two tools build credibility and trust with youraudience? (309)
Support and logic.
List the seven steps that make both your written correspondenceand speaking more effective. (310, 310-Fig)
1) Analyze your purpose and audience; 2) research the topic;3) support your ideas; 4) organize and outline; 5) prepare adraft; 6) edit the draft; and 7) fight for feedback.
What are the four purposes of most Air Force writingor speaking? (310)
To 1) direct; 2) inform; 3) persuade; or4) inspire.
When communicating, determine the message youwant to send (the what) and your purpose (the _).(310)
Why. (Your purpose will tell you what to emphasize andwhat your tone should be.)
Which communication approach should you use todescribe actions you expect your audience to carry out?(310-Fig)
The direct approach.
What should you emphasize in directive communications? (310-Fig)
Clear, concise directions and expectations.
The __ approach passes information to the audience.(310-Fig)
What should you emphasize in informative communication?(310-Fig)
Clear, direct communication of accurate and adequate informationtailored to the audience's education and skill level.
What may be appropriate during informative communicationto ensure the audience gets the message?(310-Fig)
Audience feedback and interaction.
When should you use the persuasive approach whenspeaking or writing? (310-Fig)
To sell your audience on a new idea, policy, product orchange in current operations.
The inspirational approach is rarely used whenspeaking or writing in the military. T/F (310-Fig)
False. (It's used frequently.)
What should you emphasize in inspirational communication?(310-Fig)
Your delivery and a thorough knowledge of your topic andyour audience.
When speaking or writing, what should you draft toclarify your communication's objective? (310)
A purpose statement.
A purpose statement captures the essence of whatyou're trying to do (your "bottom line"). How many sentencesshould it be? (310)
One clear sentence.
How does developing a clear purpose statement helpboth you and your audience? (310)
It helps you Focus, Organize, Clear, Understand and Support(FOCUS) as you develop your communication and it helpsyour audience FOCUS when you deliver your message.
What should you understand about yourself to helpreach your communication goals? (310)
Your own strengths and weaknesses.
Why should you know your organization whencommunicating? (310)
So you can accommodate their views, capabilities or concerns.
In communication, receiving audiences fall into whatfour subcategories? (310-311)
1) Primary receivers; 2) secondary receivers; 3) keydecisionmakers; and 4) gatekeepers.
Which audience subcategory includes the person youcommunicate with directly, either verbally or in writing?(310)
The primary receiver.
In communication, who is included in the secondaryreceiver audience subcategory? (311)
People you communicate with indirectly through the primaryreceivers.
Which audience subcategory includes the most powerfulmembers of the audience? (311)
Key decisionmakers. (Knowing who they are will help focusyour attention and delivery.)
_____ are the people in the chain who review a communicationbefore it reaches the intended audience. (311)
Gatekeepers. (Knowing who they are and what they expectcan save you embarrassment and help ensure your success.)
How can you avoid letting rank be a barrier to communication?(311)
Treat everyone as communicative equals and be candid, directand respectful to all.
Smooth out your communications by using careerfieldspecific jargon and acronyms whenever possible.T/F (311)
False. (Avoid excessive use of jargon and acronyms. Don'toverestimate the knowledge and expertise of your audience,but don't talk down to them, either.)
What communication traps can inadvertently excludemembers of the audience? (311)
References to race, religion, ethnicity or sex - for example,when designing your visual support. (Be inclusive and adhereto good taste and sensitivity.)
Why do speakers have an advantage over writersregarding tone when communicating tone? (311)
Speakers can use gestures, voice and movements to helpcommunicate tone. (Writers should remember nonverbalsignals aren't available.)
The first rule of writing is to be polite. Forego anger,criticism and sarcasm in favor of reason and persuasion.T/F (311)
True. (Be courteous. Don't deliberately embarrass anyone.)
How can using pronouns (when appropriate) helpyour communication? (311)
It personalizes your communication, creates rapport, showsconcern, keeps the audience involved and helps avoid monotony.
Instead of using "I," "me" and "my" when communicating,which pronouns should you choose? (311)
"You," "yours," "we," "us" and "our."
Avoid using "I" as the first word of an opening sentence.When could you start two sentences in a row with"I" or "We"? (311)
To hammer home a point.
Your audience appreciates sincerity and honesty.How can you cultivate a positive tone? (311)
Give praise when it's due; acknowledge acceptance beforefocusing on improvements; and express criticism as helpfulquestions, suggestions, requests and recommendations orclear directives, not as accusations.
Research your topic to support your communicationgoals. What are the five steps for effective research? (311,312-Fig)
1) Review the purpose and scope of the overall project; 2)assign a deadline for the research; 3) ask the boss; 4) determinewhat you know about the topic; and 5) determine whereto look for information.
Sometimes you may need to do preliminary researchjust to scope out the effort required for your communicationgoal. T/F (312-Fig)
True. (Sometimes the purpose and scope evolve as you learnmore.)
Why should you assign a deadline to finish yourcommunication research? (312-Fig)
To ensure you don't run out of time for the other steps.
To save some time, who should you ask for suggestionson where to start with a research project? (312-Fig)
Though you should first look to your own knowledgeabout a research topic, what should you guard againstwhile doing so? (312-Fig)
Your own biases.
List some sources of information for your researchproject. (312-Fig)
Coworkers, base personnel, office files, references, computernetwork references, the Internet and library.
Name five common types of evidence you'll use to support your ideas when communicating. (312)
l) Definitions; 2) testimony; 3) statistics; 4) facts; and 5) explanations.
A(n) __ is the precise meaning or significance of aword or phrase. (312)
In communication, what is considered testimony insupport of your claim? (312)
The comments of recognized authorities including directquotations or paraphrases.
What evidence provides a summary of data that allowsyour audience to better interpret quantitative information?(312)
How should you handle statistics when supportingyour ideas? (312)
Keep them simple and easy to understand, round them offand document their exact source.
A(n) __ is a noncontroversial piece of data thatcan be objectively verified. (312)
Should you handle inferences as testimony or as \....;'fact? (312)
List the three types of explanation used to supportideas. (312)
1) Analysis; 2) comparison and contrast; and 3) description.
Which type of explanation separates a whole intosmaller pieces for further study, clarifying a complexissue by examining one piece at a time? (312)
In explanations, comparison dramatizes similaritiesbetween two objects or situations. What does contrastdo? (312)
What type of explanation gives details, painting apicture with words? (312)
When you organize and outline your communication,select a(n) __ to help you and your readers move systematicallyand logically through your ideas. (313)
What factors influence your choice of pattern to organizeand outline your communication? (313)
Your purpose, the needs of your audience and the nature ofyour material
List the eight common organizational patterns ofcommunication. (313)
1) Topical; 2) compare or contrast; 3) chronological; 4) sequential;5) spatial or geographical; 6) problem and solution;7) reasoning and logic; and 8) cause and effect.
Which organizational pattern for communicationpresents groups of ideas, objects or events by categories?(313)
When would you use the compare and contrast patternof organization for communication? (313)
To discuss similarities or differences.
You want to discuss events sequentially from past topresent. Which organizational pattern should you use?(313)
Chronological. (Discusses events, problems or processes in asequence of time.)
The sequential pattern of organization is a step-bystepapproach, similar to the chronological pattern.When would you use the sequential pattern? (313)
To describe a sequence of steps to complete a technical procedureor process.
Which organizational pattern of communicationstarts at some point in space and proceeds in sequence toother points (north to south, clockwise, bottom to top,etc.)? (313)
Spatial or geographical.
Describe the problem and solution organizationalpattern of communication. (313)
It identifies and describes a problem and possible solutionsor an issue and possible techniques to resolve it.
Which organizational pattern of communicationstates an opinion, then provides support for that position?(313)
Reasoning and logic.
You want to lead your audience down the path toyour point of view on an issue. Which organizational pattern of communication should you choose? (313)
Reasoning and logic.
The ____ and __ organizational pattern of communication shows how one or more ideas, actions orconditions lead to others. (313)
Cause and effect.
When writing a draft, you should focus on grammar,punctuation, spelling and word choice. T/F (313)
False. (Focus on getting your ideas down on paper, not onpolished sentences.)
How can you avoid losing focus when writing adraft? (313)
Periodically check your outline.
You should break your draft into what three-partstructure? (313)
1) Introduction; 2) body; and 3) conclusion.
What should the introduction to your draft do? (313)
Capture your audience's attention, establish rapport and announceyour purpose.
A draft's typical introduction has what three components?(313)
1) Stage-setting remarks; 2) purpose statement; and 3) overview.
Which of the three components of a draft's typicalintroduction is optional, especially in very short messages?(313)
Stage-setting remarks. (They set the tone, capture attentionand encourage the audience to read further.)
If you could only keep one sentence in a draft's introduction,which one would it be? (313)
The purpose statement. (It specifies your purpose, thesis ormain point.)
The __ in your introduction clearly presents yourmain points, previews your paragraph sequence and tiesyour main points to your purpose. (314)
In a well-arranged communication, what part comeslast, summarizing the main points and leaving a sense ofclosure? (314)
The conclusion of your draft should bring up newinformation to avoid repetition. T/F (314)
False. (Do not bring up new information. Instead, balance theintroduction without being identical.)
The __ of your draft includes your main ideas and supporting details for your message. (314)
Body. (It typically consists of several paragraphs.)
Generally you should write a separate paragraph inthe body of your message for each main idea. T/F (314)
Paragraphs group related ideas into single units ofthought. What should each paragraph contain as its focalpoint? (314)
A topic sentence. (Supporting ideas should prove, clarify,illustrate and develop your main point.)
Prepare all Air Force correspondence using plainlanguage. Give examples of plain language. (314)
Using logical organization; common, everyday words (exceptnecessary technical terms); pronouns such as "you" andothers; the active voice; and short sentences.
Internal transitions are used within a sentence toimprove its flow. How are external transitions used?(314)
To link separate paragraphs together.
What are the three considerations when draftingsentences? (314)
I) Use the active voice; 2) avoid smothered verbs; and 3) useparallelism.
Does the active voice or the passive voice show thesubject as the receiver of the action? (314)
Passive voice. (The active voice uses fewer words to makethe point quickly.)
Which is an example of active voice - "I appreciateyour support" or "Your support is appreciated"? (314)
"I appreciate your support."
Which is an example of passive voice - "Please submit"or "It is requested that you submit"? (314)
"It is requested that you submit."
Keep verbs active, lively, specific, concise and out infront, not hidden. T/F (314)
Which is an example of smothered verbs - "The IGteam held a meeting to give consideration to the printingissue" or "The IG team met to consider the printing issue"?(314-315)
"The JG team held a meeting to give consideration to theprinting issue."
____ construction uses a consistent pattern whenmaking a list and doesn't mix things and actions, statements and questions, or active and passive voice. (315)
Even experienced writers can have a hard time gettingstarted. T/F (315)
List five fears that lead to writer's block. (315)
Fear of: 1) failure; 2) rejection; 3) success; 4) offending; and5) running out of ideas.
Writing just the topic sentences for each paragraphis one way to overcome writer's block. Name several others.(315-Fig)
Brainstorm or "free write" to get started, don't procrastinate,don't worry about constraints on the first draft, bounce ideasoff a friend or coworker, use visuals to show meaning anddevelop rituals or routines to get in the mood to write.
To edit efficiently, read your document at leasttimes. (315)
What should you do on the first editing pass? (315)
Look at the big picture (the arrangement and flow of ideas).
On the first editing pass, what should you ensureabout the purpose statement? (315-316)
That it answers the original tasker and is contained in theintroduction. (Also check that the introduction and conclusiongo together.)
What should you ensure in each paragraph duringthe first editing pass? (316)
That they clearly relate to the purpose statement, are relevant,contain all main points and are arranged in a consistentorder.
What should you check on the second editing pass?(316)
Paragraphs, structure and clarity.
What three areas should you focus on in each paragraphduring the second editing pass? (316)
1) Unity of focus; 2) topic sentences; and 3) supporting ideas.
On the second editing pass, ensure each paragraphcontains __ main point(s). (316)
One. (All information must relate enough to be in the sameparagraph.)
A paragraph should have one sentence that captures its central idea. What is this called? (316)
The topic sentence.
105. How many sentences should a paragraph contain intotal? (316)
Three to seven.
What should you check on the third editing pass?(316)
Sentences, phrases and words. (Look at the details - passivevoice, unclear language, excessive wordiness, grammar andspelling.)
Why should you read the paper out-loud during thethird editing pass? (316)
Because you may catch more errors when you slow downand use two senses - seeing and hearing.
Fight for feedback and have a second person reviewyour communication. Who should you choose to givefeedback? (316)
Coworkers familiar with the issue and its jargon or an expertin an area of communication (such as grammar).
If you are a feedback reviewer, you should be consistent,objective, sensitive to the stated purpose and stickto what the person wants from your review. Should youmark every possible change to help the author? (316)
No, distinguish between necessary, desirable and unnecessarychanges. Only give the author a sense of what reallyneeds to be changed.
To give effective feedback, you should concentrate onimproving content, not writing style or personal preferences.Should you use general statements or pinpointspecific problems? (316)
Pinpoint specific problems. (Such as awkward sentences,grammar, etc.)
List the four writing feedback philosophies. (316-Fig)
1) Describe rather than judge; 2) be both positive and negative- consider strong and weak points; 3) strive to be specific;and 4) direct feedback at behavior the author can control.
As a supervisor providing feedback for a subordinate,you should be tactful and patient. Should you helpinexperienced subordinates revise or rewrite their communications?(317)
Yes, if necessary.
The principles of effective communication applyequally well to written and spoken communications. T/F (317)
What are the three most common and familiar waysto prepare all official and personal correspondence andmemoranda? (317)
1) Official memorandum; 2) personal letter; and 3) Memorandumfor Record (MR).
What writing format should you use to communicatewith all DoD agencies? (317)
The official memorandum.
What writing format should you use to conduct officialbusiness with vendors or contractors outside the governmentwhen the personal letter isn't appropriate? (317)
The official memorandum.
Which should you use for an official memorandum -printed letterhead, computer-generated letterhead orplain bond paper? (317)
You may use any of them.
For an official memorandum, you may type or printon only one side and you must use black or blue-blackink. What size font should you use? (317)
I 0- to 12-point.
You've made a minor typographical error whilewriting an official memorandum. How should you correctit? (317)
Correct it neatly and legibly in ink. (Don't redo correspondenceto correct an error that does not change intent.)
What three captions for an official memorandum aretyped in all caps, two line spaces apart, beginning fourlines below the date or 14 lines from the top of the page?(318-Fig)
MEMORANDUM FOR, FROM and SUBJECT. (If you usecomputer-generated letterhead without the DoD Seal or plainbond paper, begin 11 line spaces from the top.)
The FROM caption on an official memorandumshould contain the full mailing address of the functionoriginating the correspondence. T/F (318-Fig)
In an official memorandum, type the text flush withthe left margin, beginning two line spaces below theSUBJECT caption. Should you number and letter eachparagraph? (318-Fig)
Type the signature element of an official memorandumat least three spaces to the right of page center, fivelines below the last line of text. What should the signature
Type the signature element of an official memorandumat least three spaces to the right of page center, fivelines below the last line of text. What should the signature element include? (318-Fig)
On the first line, the name in UPPERCASE, including gradeand service; on the second line, the duty title; and on thethird line, the name of the office or organization level (if notannounced in the heading).
Where should you type "Attachments" on an officialmemorandum? (318-Fig)
Flush with the left margin, 10 lines below the last line of textor three lines below the signature element. (If there are twoor more, number them in the order referenced in the memorandum.)
In an official memorandum, what should you cite inthe description of each attachment? (318-Fig)
The office of origin, type of communication, date and numberof copies (in parentheses) if more than one.
You are writing to an individual on a private matterto convey condolences. What writing format should youuse? (317)
The personal letter. (Use this format when a personal touch,warmth or sincerity is essential.)
How long should a personal letter be? (317)
Preferably no longer than one page.
Which writing format includes salutation and complimentaryclose elements? (317)
The personal letter.
The is an informal document with a set formatthat notes certain actions or records information referringto a certain piece of correspondence. (317)
Memorandum for Record (MR).
What two Memorandum for Record (MR) methodsare used most often? (317)
The separate-page MR and the explanatory MR.
You are recording information from a telephone call.What writing format would you use? (317)
A separate-page Memorandum for Record (MR).
What information does a separate-page Memorandumfor Record (MR) record? (317)
Information usually passed on to coworkers verbally thatshould, in this instance, be recorded in writing and filed. (It'san in-house document.)
What line can be added to a separate-page Memorandumfor Record (MR) to specifically target the addressee?(317)
A "MEMO FOR" or "TO:" line.
Should a separate-page Memorandum for Record(MR) use official letterhead? (319-Fig)
No, type or write on a sheet of paper.
Use __ -inch margins all around in a separatepageMemorandum for Record (MR). (319-Fig)
Number paragraphs if there are more than one in aseparate-page Memorandum for Record (MR). Is a fullsignature block required? (319-Fig)
No, but it should be signed.
The __ Memorandum for Record (MR) is usuallyon the file copy of most correspondence. (319)
By reading a(n) __ Memorandum for Record(MR) and the basic correspondence, the reader shouldunderstand enough to act without additional information.(319)
What information should an explanatory Memorandumfor Record (MR) include? (319)
A quick synopsis of the purpose of the correspondence, whogot involved and additional information not included in thebasic correspondence.
If the basic correspondence really does say it all, anexplanatory Memorandum for Record (MR) may not berequired. However, what may some organizations stillrequire for the file copy? (319)
That you write "MR: Self-explanatory" on the file copy.
How should you handle an explanatory Memorandumfor Record (MR) if there is not enough space on thecorrespondence? (319-Fig)
Type "MR ATTACHED" or "MR ON REVERSE" and putthe MR on a separate sheet or on the back of the record copyifit can be read clearly.
You do not need to number multiple paragraphs inan explanatory Memorandum for Record (MR). T/F(319-Fig)
False. (Number ifthere is more than one paragraph.)
Describe how to sign an explanatory Memorandumfor Record (MR) when there is ample space. (319-Fig)
Merely sign your last name after the last word.
You have a very brief explanatory Memorandum forRecord (MR) but not enough space on the bottom of yourcorrespondence. Describe the format you'll use. (320-Fig)
Type "MR:" on the same line as the text, use the tighter for mat and sign your last name followed by the date.
List three Air Force (AF) communication formatsthat may require you to write bullet statements. (320)
1) EPR; 2) AF IMT 1206, Nomination for Award; and 3)Bullet Background Paper (BBP).
List the three phases of writing an effective bulletstatement. (320)
Phase 1 - extract the facts; Phase 2 - build the structure; andPhase 3 - streamline the final product.
How should you begin writing bullet statements?(320)
Gather as much relevant information as you can, then sortthrough it.
In Phase 1 of writing a bullet statement, what shouldyou do as you sort through the information you've collected?(320)
1) Isolate one specific action the person performed (withoutgeneralizing); 2) select the best power verb for the action; 3)look for numerical information related to the action (dollarsgenerated, manhours saved, etc.); 4) find information abouthow the accomplishment impacted the bigger picture; 5)review each item to see if it is associated with the single accomplishmentidentified earlier; and 6) organize the informationinto the proper structure using the accomplishmentand impact elements.
In Phase 2 of writing a bullet statement, what twocomponents are used to organize information into theproper structure? (320)
The accomplishment element and the impact element.
What does the accomplishment element of a bulletstatement focus on? (320)
It begins with an action and focuses on one single accomplishment.(If the action verb needs a boost, use an adverb.)
What does the impact element of a bullet statementexplain? (320)
How the person's actions affected the organization - whetherat the work center level or the unit or the entire Air Force.
In Phase 3 of writing a bullet statement, streamlinethe final product to make it accurate, __ and specific.(320-321)
Brief. (Avoid exaggerating facts. Use the fewest, shortest,clearest, most descriptive words. Don't estimate or generalize.)
Spoken communication involves both speaking and__ .(321)
What should an effective speaker control to createinterest and improve communication? (321)
Volume, pitch, pauses and speech rate.
Vary your rate of speech to hold the audience's attentionand add emphasis. People can listen __ timesfaster than the normal spoken rate of 120 words per minute.(321)
Four to five times.
Typically, is speaking louder or softer a more effectiveway to emphasize a point? (321)
What should you remember when checking out aroom to see how loudly you must talk? (321)
That your voice will carry further when the room is emptyinstead of full.
What is the use of higher or lower notes in your voicecalled? (321)
Pitch. (Variety avoids monotone.)
When speaking, the pause serves the same functionas __ in writing. (321)
__ is the art of expressing words distinctly. __is the ability to speak words correctly. (321)
Why should you avoid mispronunciation? (321)
Many people unfairly assume a mispronunciation reflects thespeaker's intelligence.
What is the key rule regarding the length of a verbalcommunication? (321)
Keep it short and sweet. (Be prepared, know what you wantto say, then say it, keeping your purpose and audience inmind.)
How much of our meaning may be communicatednonverbally through vocal cues, eye contact, body movementand gestures? (321)
More than half.
What most enhances the delivery of spoken communication?(321)
Effective eye contact. (It lets listeners know you're interestedin them, lets you receive nonverbal feedback from the audience and enhances your credibility.)
When speaking to an audience, it's best to remainstill behind a podium so you don't distract from yourmessage. T/F (321)
False. (Feel free to move around. Effective body movementis free, purposeful and catches the eye of the listener.)
__ are the purposeful use of your hands, arms,shoulders and head to reinforce your words. (322)
stures. (They should be natural and purposeful, not distracting.)
The time you have to prepare and the nature of themessage can affect your choice of spoken delivery format.T/F (322)
List three common spoken delivery formats. (322)
1) Impromptu; 2) prepared; and 3) manuscript.
Which spoken delivery format requires you to speakpublicly without warning or on a few moments' notice?(322)
Impromptu. (It requires self-confidence, mastery of the subjectand thinking on your feet.)
Which spoken delivery format is the highest level ofverbal communication, if mastered? (322)
What does prepared speaking require? (322)
A thorough outline - with careful planning, practicing andample opportunity to prepare.
Do you memorize a script for prepared speaking?(322)
No, the words at the time of delivery are spontaneous andnatural.
Which spoken delivery format requires that everyword spoken be absolutely perfect? (322)
When speaking, what are the disadvantages of amanuscript briefing? (322)
It can lack spontaneity, eye contact and body movement.
Name the three types of speaking used in the AirForce. (322)
Briefings, teaching lectures and formal speeches.
What are the three qualities of every good briefing?(322)
Accuracy, brevity and clarity. (Military briefings are conciseand factual.)
Which quality distinguishes the briefing from othertypes of speaking? (322)
In which of these scenarios would you use a briefing- to inform listeners about a mission, to direct listeners toperform a procedure, or to advocate a solution and leadthe audience to accept it? (322)
Use a briefing for all of those scenarios.
You've just finished a briefing and are asked a questionyou cannot answer. What should you do? (322)
Admit you don't know the answer and offer to provide itlater.
What is the instruction method used most often inthe Air Force? (322)
The teaching lecture.
Formal lectures are generally one-way, with no verbalparticipation by students. How do informal lecturesdiffer? (322)
They have smaller audiences and permit verbal interactionbetween the instructor and students.
What are the three basic purposes of a formalspeech? (322)
To inform, persuade or entertain.
The __ speech is a narration about a specific topic,but it isn't a sustained effort to teach. (322)
What type of formal speech moves an audience tobelieve in or take action on a topic? (322)
The __ speech often relies on humor and vividlanguage. (322)
An orientation talk and presentations at commander'scall are examples of which type of formal speech?(322)
A speech at a Dining-Out is an example of whichtype of formal speech? (322)
Recruiting speeches and court-martial summationsare examples of which type of formal speech? (322)
__ occurs when your ears pick up sound wavestransmitted by a speaker or other source. (322)
Hearing. (It doesn't require consciously decoding information.)
___ makes sense out of what is transmitted toyour ears by sound waves. (322)
What steps does active listening require? (322)
Hearing, comprehending, evaluating and remembering themessage.
Why is effective listening especially important in theAir Force? (323)
Because any miscommunication is potentially catastrophic.(It also helps build trust and mutual respect and helps leadersmake better decisions and create a stronger bond with theirAirmen.)
Appropriate listening behaviors in one situation maybe inappropriate in another. T/F (323)
What are the three types of listening? (323)
Informative, critical and empathic.
What is the listener's primary concern in informativelistening? (323)
Understanding information exactly as it is transmitted.
List several ways to improve your informative listeningskills. (323)
l) Keep an open mind; 2) listen as if you had to teach it; 3)take notes (focus on the main points); 4) respond and askappropriate questions (clarify and confirm); and 5) exploitthe time gap between thinking and speaking speeds.
Critical listening is the sum of informative listeningand what? (323)
Critical thinking. (Actively analyze and evaluate the speaker'smessage.)
In informative listening, listen as if you had to teachit. How does this differ from critical listening? (323)
In critical listening, listen as though you had to grade it.
In informative listening, ask questions to clarify andconfirm. What type of questions should you ask duringcritical listening? (323)
Questions that probe and evaluate the intellectual content.
Even when you're listening critically, you shouldn'tmentally argue with the speaker until the message is finished.T/F (323)
What type of listening do you use when communicationis emotional or the relationship between speaker andlistener is as important as the message? (323)
Empathic listening is often the last step in the listeningprocess. T/F (323)
False. (It is often the first step, a prerequisite to informationalor critical listening.)
Which type of listening is appropriate when evaluatinga subordinate's capabilities? (323)
Critical listening. (It is also appropriate when seeking inputon a decision or conducting research.)
Which type of listening is appropriate during mentoringand nonpunitive counseling sessions? (323)
Empathic listening. (Also when communicating with familymembers.)
Email transmits information electronically over__ -based messaging systems. (323)
How does the Air Force ensure secure email messaging?(324)
Through guidelines that ensure standardized and responsibleuse by all Air Force members.
In identity management, what element is vital tomessage security? (324)
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Common Access Cards(CAC).
____ authenticates an email sender's identity usinga digital signature and message encryption and decryption.(324)
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
Current Air Force guidance contains informationabout the use of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to sendand receive email. T/F (324)
False. (It is used to sign and encrypt email.)
Describe the Defense Message System (DMS). (324)
It is the core message system of record for the DoD and AirForce - interfacing to other US government agencies, alliedforces and defense contractors.
The Defense Message System (DMS) was developedby the Air Force. T/F (324)
False. (It is a commercial off-the-shelf application.)
To whom does Defense Message System (DMS) providemessaging and interface? (324)
DMS provides messaging to all DoD users (including deployedtactical users) and interfaces with other US governmentagencies, allied forces and defense contractors.
What are the two classes of official Air Force email?(324)
1) Organizational Defense Message System (DMS) HighGrade Service (HGS); and 2) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP).
Messages of which email class are directive in natureor require message release authority? (324)
Organizational Defense Message System (DMS) High GradeService (HGS).
Which email class includes messages to commit militaryresources, make formal requests or provide commandpositions? (324)
Organizational Defense Message System (DMS) High GradeService (HGS).
Which email class includes individual or organizationalmessages that do not promise or direct an organization?(324)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
In the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) emailclass, how are official messages signed? (324)
Digitally. (They are also encrypted.)
Unofficial Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)email messages require a digital signature and encryption.T/F (324)
What system electronically transmits officialtaskings to organizational addresses? (324)
High Grade Service (HGS). (Do not send official taskings toindividual addresses.)
Who must ensure taskings sent by email are receivedby the intended recipient? (324)
What must the receiver of an email tasking ensure?(324)
The accuracy of the tasking.
When may Air Force members and civilian employeesuse a government-provided messaging system? (324)
For official or authorized uses only. (All systems are subjectto monitoring.)
Individuals using a government-provided messagingsystem are not responsible for which of the following -complying with Air Force and MAJCOM email policies,delegating responsibility for email content according toAir Force directives, or maintaining sent and receivedinformation according to Air Force records managementdirectives? (324)
Delegating responsibility for email content according to AirForce directives. (Individuals are responsible for email contentaccording to Air Force guidance.)
When sending email, where should you place anyspecial message handling instructions? (324)
In the message body, after the classification and before theactual text. (Place handling instructions for High Grade Service(HGS) within the "handling instructions" field in theAutomatic Digital Network (AUTODIN) tab.)
Individuals using a government-provided messagingsystem are not responsible for which of the following -obtaining written approval from the commander to joinelectronic newsgroups (except official Air Force internalinformation products), maintaining a log of suspectedemail policy violations, ensuring undelivered messagesreach their intended recipient, or protecting sensitive andclassified Air Force information? (324)
Maintaining a log of suspected email policy violations. (Reportsuspected violations to your supervisor or the informationprotection office.)
Never auto-forward email from the ".mil" domain toa local Internet service provider. T/F (324)
When is it appropriate to routinely add slogans,quotes, special backgrounds, special stationeries, digitalimages or unusual fonts to your official or individualemails? (324-325)
It is never appropriate. (Always consider the Air Force's professionalimage and conservation of Air Force network re- \....._,'sources (bandwidth).)
Individuals will not send harassing, intimidating,abusive or offensive material to, or about, others viaemail. T/F (324-325)
What law requires agencies to safeguard the securityand confidentiality of records and protect personal privacy?(325)
The Privacy Act of 1974.
What four measures should you consider beforesending sensitive or personal information in DoD emails?(325)
Confirm 1) there is an official need; 2) all addressees areauthorized receivers under the Privacy Act; 3) the subjectline includes "For Official Use Only (FOUO)," followed bythe subject; and 4) "This email contains FOUO informationwhich must be protected under The Privacy Act and AFI 33-332" appears at the start of the email.
What provides guidelines for proper on-line behaviorthat avoids social blunders and offending recipients?(325)
Email protocol ("netiquette").
List several ways you can avoid email protocol blunders.(325-326)
1) Be clear and concise; 2) watch your tone; 3) be selectiveabout the message you send; 4) be selective about who receivesyour message; 5) check your attachments and supportmaterial; and 6) keep your email under control.
To be clear and concise with your email, ensure thesubject line communicates your purpose and lead withthe most important information. List several other thingsyou should do. (325)
1) Use topic sentences for multiple paragraphs; 2) be briefand stick to the point; 3) use bold, italics or color to emphasizekey points; and 4) choose readable fonts.
What size font is considered readable in email? (325)
12-point or larger.
To watch your tone in an email, be polite, keep itclean and professional and don't shout. How do you shoutin an email? (325)
Write in all capital letters.
Why should you be careful with humor, irony andsarcasm in email? (325)
Because they are perceived more harshly without nonverbalcues.
Nonverbal cues (body language, tone of voice, etc.)make up __ % of interpersonal communications. (325)
Be selective about the message you send. List severaltopics you should not discuss in email. (325)
Any controversial, sensitive, For Official Use Only (FOUO),classified, personal, Privacy Act or unclassified informationrequiring special document handling.
Because even unclassified information can createproblems in the wrong hands when brought together withother information, always consider __ when sendingemail. (325)
Operations Security (OPSEC).
Which is a good use of Air Force email - creating,forwarding or posting junk mail on bulletin boards; creatingor sending chain letters; or using email for personalads? (325-326)
None of these. (Never use email for any of these purposes.)
List four ways you can be selective about who getsyour email messages. (326)
1) Reply to specific addresses only; 2) use "Reply All" sparingly;3) get permission before using large mail groups; and4) double-check the address before mailing.
What should you ensure by checking your attachmentsand support material before you send an email?(326)
Ensure that 1) your attachment is there (the most commonmistake); 2) all information is provided the first time; 3)you've cited all quotes, references and sources; and 4) you'verespected copyright and license agreements.
List several ways you can keep your email undercontrol. (326)
1) Sign off the computer when you leave your workstation;2) create mailing lists; 3) read and delete files daily; 4) createan organized directory on your hard drive; 5) ensure recordcopies are properly identified and stored in an approved filingsystem; 6) acknowledge important or sensitive messages;and 7) set up an "Auto Reply" when you're away for an extendedperiod.
What information should your email "Auto Reply"include? (326)
How long you're unavailable via email and alternate contactsfor immediate answers or responses.
What resource provides the capability for quick andefficient dissemination of and access to information fromgovernment and nongovernment sources? (326)
The Internet (or "the Web").
Explain the differences between public and privateAir Force websites. (326)
Public sites are available and of interest to the general public,Private websites are intended for a limited audience (".mil"and ".gov" users). (Users must consider access and securitycontrols required for private web pages and sites.)
What is the Air Force goal for Internet usage? (326)
To provide maximum availability at acceptable risk levelsfor personnel who need Internet access for official business..
Government hardware and software are for officialuse and authorized purposes. Who may authorize personaluses? (326)
Appropriate officials. (Such policies should be explicit toavoid adverse administrative or disciplinary actions.)
Which use of the Internet is permitted - conductingunofficial and/or unauthorized government business,receiving personal or commercial financial gain, storingor otherwise transmitting offensive or obscene languageor material, or using copyrighted material without violatingthe owner's rights? (326-327)
Using copyrighted material without violating the owner'srights.
Classified information must be stored or processedonly on a computer system that has what approval? (327)
Approval for classified processing.
When can you view, change, damage, delete or blockaccess to another user's files or communications; or try tocircumvent or defeat security or auditing systems? (327)
With appropriate authorization or permission (i.e., legitimatesystem testing or security research).
When can you obtain, install, copy, store or use softwarein violation of the appropriate vendor's licenseagreement or permit unauthorized individuals access to agovernment system? (327)
Whose written permission do you need before modifyingor altering the computer network operating systemor system configuration? (327)
The system administrator of that system.
Copying and posting For Official Use Only (FOUO),controlled unclassified, critical or personally identifiableinformation on DoD-owned, -operated or -controlled accessiblesites or on commercial Internet-based capabilitiesis prohibited. T/F (327)
Whose approval is required before you download orinstall freeware, shareware or any software product?(327)
The Designated Approval Authority approval.
All Air Force members must -check all downloadedfiles, including sound and video files and emailattachments. (327)
Why shouldn't you download computer files to anetwork or shared drive? (327)
Because they can rapidly spread a virus.
When possible, where should you download files beforeplacing them on the computer's hard drive? (327)
To a CD/DVD. (Run a virus check before moving them toyour computer.)
What should you do after virus-checking compresseddownloaded files? (327)
Run a second virus check on the decompressed files.
Operations Security (OPSEC) training and educationapplies to computer use as much as conversationsbetween personnel, transmitting correspondence andtelephone conversations. T/F (327)
Why should military members and government employeesrefrain from discussing work-related issues onFacebook, Twitter, biogs and online discussion forums?(327)
Because policies that restrict communicating with unauthorizedpersonnel also apply to Internet communications. (Suchdiscussions could result in unauthorized disclosure of militaryinformation to foreign individuals, governments or intelligenceagencies, or the disclosure of potential acquisitionsensitiveinformation.)
Many SNCO positions require a job interview. T/F(327-328)
True. (The job interview is often a new experience and requirespreparation, practice and perseverance.)
All job interviews share what single goal? (328)
Finding the right person for the job.
Employers may interview several SNCOs. T/F(474)(328)
True. (Your goal is to convey you are the right candidate.)
Job interviews are a one-way process. T/F (328)
False. (You are also interviewing the employer to see if youwant the job.)
Before an interview, think about your desire for thejob. Give three examples of questions to consider. (328)
Am I willing to 1) spend the next 2-3 years of your career inthis organization?; 2) work under conditions laid out in thejob description?; and 3) make a PCS?
Your task in a job interview is to convey that your__ are a perfect match for the position. (328)
Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA). (Answer the question:"Why should I hire you?")
What are the two types of job interviews? (328)
1) Appearance interviews; and 2) phone interviews.
In-person job interviews are usually individual interviewsor __ interviews. (328)
Who often conducts an individual job interview?(328)
The immediate supervisor or someone higher in the chain ofcommand.
Hiring decisions are often based on individual jobinterviews. T/F (328)
What should you plan to discuss in an individual jobinterview? (328)
How your skills, experience and training relate to the job.
Selection panel interviews are frequently used to fill__ positions. (328)
How many people usually sit on the board for a selectionpanel interview? (328)
Three or more. (They typically ask more structured questions.)
Why are selection panel interviews particularlystressful? (328)
You answer questions from several people. (Remember tomake eye contact with everyone on the panel.)
Typically, when applying for a special assignment ina location other than your current assignment, the hiringorganization will base their decision on a phone interview.T/F (328)
How are phone interviews commonly used? (328)
To narrow the applicant pool.
Before any Air Force job interview, why should youcarefully study the job advertisement or position description?(328)
To match your Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) to itsrequirements.
Name the five items of information and documentationfrequently submitted during the job application process.(329)
1) Past EPRs; 2) a personnel report on individual personnel(RIP); 3) a resume; 4) letters of recommendation; and 5) acover letter.
In the job application process, what do you use totarget your Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) to theposition? (329)
Your resume and letters of recommendation.
A job application cover letter should primarily reemphasizethe strengths addressed in your EPRs, resumeor letters ofrecommendation. T/F (329)
False. (Target one or two strengths not yet mentioned.)
Research the organization's mission and history beforea job interview. List three topics to investigate. (329)
Any three of the following: the organization's 1) commanderand senior enlisted members; 2) size; 3) number of enlistedpersonnel; 4) mission and vision statements; 5) potential forfuture mission changes; and 6) noteworthy recent activity.
How will knowing about the hiring organization improveyour performance in a job interview? (329)
It shows you care about the organization and the job.
When preparing for a job interview, identifystrengths that target the job's Knowledge, Skills, andAbilities (KSA). How should you address your weaknesses?(329)
Identify weaknesses that can be turned into strengths. (Forinstance, "I am detail-oriented, but not a micromanager.")
Why should you write down your strengths andweaknesses before a job interview? (329)
You can study them and build your confidence. (Developspecific examples that highlight your skills.)
Use job descriptions and past EPRs to predict questionsemployers might ask during an interview. T/F (329)
True. (Create a list of questions you would ask, then developanswers.)
When predicting potential questions you'll be askedduring a job interview, how should you frame your responses?(329)
Include specific, concrete examples that highlight your skillsand tie them to the job's requirements.
List four areas to focus on while preparing answersto potential job interview questions. (329)
Any four of the following: I) problem-solving skills; 2)thoughts on Air Force transformation; 3) team-buildingskills; 4) how you support the Chief of Staff of the AirForce's (CSAF) priorities; 5) leadership philosophy; 6) abilityto adapt and work in fast-paced environments; 7) handlingcriticism; and 8) decision-making ability.
Provide three examples of questions you should prepareto answer in a job interview. (329)
Any three of the following: 1) "Why should I hire you?"; 2)"How soon can you report?"; 3) "How does your family feelabout the move?"; 4) "Where do you see yourself in two tothree years?"; and 5) "Are there any personal issues that mayprevent you from accepting or performing in this position?"
Job interviewers expect candidates to ask intelligent,thoughtful questions concerning the __ and nature ofthe work. (329)
Organization. (Your questions reveal your interest.)
During a job interview, ensure your questions are__ -centered. __ -centered questions may indicateyou are primarily interested in the position's benefits.(329)
Develop a list of questions to ask the potential employerin a job interview. Name the five areas to target.(329)
1) Job duties and responsibilities; 2) possible mission changes;3) chain of command or lines of responsibility; 4) uniquerequirements of the organization; and 5) a typical day in theorganization.
What should you practice before a job interview?(329)
Everything! (Practice how to get out of your car, how towalk into the room, how you will ask and answer questions,nonverbal communication and anything you think you willdo before, during or after the interview.)
To prepare for a job interview, have friends andfamily conduct __ interviews. (329)
Mock. (Or practice in front of a mirror.)
Listening during a job interview is less importantthan openly and honestly discussing your Knowledge,Skills, and Abilities (KSA). T/F (329-330)
False. (They are equally important.)
When listening during a job interview, what shouldyou focus on? (329)
What is being said and how it is said, not how you are performing.
How does listening for the "questions behind thequestions" help you during a job interview? (329-330)
You may gain insight about the organization and use it toyour benefit. (For instance, if you detect a possible teambuildingissue, sell your ability to lead and motivate teams.)
List three rules to follow during phone and personalinterviews. (330)
Any three of the following: 1) keep your answers concise,limited to 2-3 minutes; 2) provide specific examples of yourskills and achievements; 3) tie your strengths to the job'srequirements; 4) ask questions; 5) maintain a conversationaltone; and 6) keep important documents nearby.
The phone interview is less important than the personaljob interview. T/F (330)
Why is a phone interview often more difficult than apersonal job interview? (330)
You have no visual feedback from the interviewer.
Why should you smile during a phone interview?(330)
It keeps you energetic and helps project enthusiasm.
Keep a(n) ___ in front of you during a phone interview.(330)
Mirror. (To see your expressions and body posture.)
During a phone interview, why should you conductyourself as you would in a personal interview, includingyour body posture? (330)
Your body posture reflects in your voice.
How can you gauge when to start and stop talkingduring a phone interview? (330)
Pay close attention to the interviewer's tone and do not feelobligated to fill long pauses with conversation.
Develop notes to prepare for phone interviews. Whatshould they include? (330)
1) A list of your strengths and weaknesses; 2) how yourskills match organizational needs; 3) questions your interviewermight ask and possible responses; and 4) potentialquestions to ask your interviewer
What should you practice before a phone interview?(330)
Delivering polished responses to predictable questions. (Butdon't memorize answers or they will sound canned.)
When does a personal job interview often begin and end? (330)
It starts the moment you get out of your car and ends whenyou drive away.
Why might some interviewers let you sit in a waitingarea for 10-20 minutes? (330)
To create tension and observe your bearing before the actualinterview begins.
In job interviews, employers will judge how you lookand act, not just what you say. T/F (330-331)
True. (Don't let your nonverbal communication cost you ajob!)
What do your actions, mannerisms and appearancereflect during a job interview? (330)
They give nonverbal information about your work-relatedskills, attitudes and values.
Research shows that __ percent of meaning inany interaction is conveyed nonverbally. (330-331)
What sends your first nonverbal message to an employerduring an interview? (331)
Your dress and appearance.
How should you shake hands at a job interview?(331)
Firmly, but not too firmly. (Offer men and women the samehandshake.)
How will an employer use eye contact in an interview?(331)
To determine your enthusiasm, sincerity and possible inconsistenciesin your responses.
What happens if you use natural eye contact duringa job interview? (331)
The interview will become more conversation-like and youwill be less nervous. (Your eyes are your most powerfulcommunication tools.)
How should you sit during a job interview? (331)
Up straight but not stiff, leaning slightly forward toward theinterviewer.
During a job interview, it is acceptable to mirror theinterviewer's body language. T/F (331)
True. (However, don't become too relaxed.)
Why should you use natural gestures as you talkduring a job interview? (331)
Gestures help you relax, convey enthusiasm and releasenervous energy. (Avoid nervous gestures.)
In a job interview, speak clearly and evenly. Listthree things to consider when talking. (331)
Any three of the following: 1) show enthusiasm; 2) do notspeak in a monotone; 3) allow your volume to rise and fall;4) pronounce words clearly; 5) use good grammar and diction;and 6) always think before you speak.
How can you use an interviewer's nonverbal cues?(331)
They may convey how well they are listening and how youare doing. (If they seem inattentive or distracted, shortenyour answers, use examples or ask questions.)
What should you do as a job interview concludes?(331)
Sell yourself again. (Take two to three minutes to summarize,convey your interest, recap one or two key points andrestate how your experience and skills match the positionrequirements.)
What two actions increase your chances of successafter a job interview? (331)
1) Send a short thank-you note; and 2) take notes on yourexperience for later review.
A thank-you note sent after a job interview should betwo or three paragraphs long, handwritten or typed, andsent within a day or two of the interview. What shouldyou write? (331)
1) Express your gratitude for the opportunity; 2) restate yourinterest in the position and highlight any noteworthy pointsfrom the interview or anything you'd like to clarify; 3) addanything you wish you had said; and 4) close by mentioningyou will call in a few days to inquire about the employer'sdecision.
Why should you take notes after a job interview?(331)
They will be invaluable to review for future interviews.
What five things should you include when you takenotes after a job interview? (331)
1) Your strong and weak points in the interview; 2) what wassuccessful; 3) what you would change; 4) what you need toimprove; and 5) some of the questions asked and how youanswered them.