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Personality

The pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which each person can be compared and contrasted with others.

1

Psychodynamic approach

Freud's view that personality is based on the interplay between mental processes.

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Id

The unconscious portion of personality containing basic impulses and urges.

3

Libido

The psychic energy containing in the id. (Eros: life instinct, positive; Thanatos: death instinct, negative)

4

Pleasure principle

The id's operating principle, which guides people toward whatever feels good.

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Ego

The part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world.

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Reality principle

The operating principle of the ego that creates compromises between the id's demands and those of the real world.

7

Superego

The component of personality that tells people what they should and shouldn't do.

8

Defense mechanisms

Psychological responses that help protect a person from anxiety and guilt.

9

Psychosexual stages

Periods of personality development on which conflicts focus on particular issues.
Oral: Mouth
Anal: Butt
Phallic: Genitals
Genital: Sex thoughts

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Oedipus/Electra complex

Loving mom/dad, disliking opposite.

11

Latency period

Fourth psychosexual stage, sexual impulses lie dormant.

12

Trait approach

A perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of characteristics that people display over time and across situations.

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Big-five model

Five trait dimensions found in many factor-analytic studies of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

14

Social-cognitive approach

An approach in which personality is seen as the patterns of thinking and behavior that a person learns.

15

Functional analysis

Analyzing behavior by studying what responses occur under what conditions of operant reward and punishment.

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Perceived self-efficacy

According to Bandura, learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations.

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Humanistic approach

A view in which personality develops through an actualization tendency that unfolds in accordance with each person's unique perceptions of the world.

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Actualizing tendency

According to Rogers, an innate inclination toward growth that motivates all people.

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Self-concept

The way one thinks of oneself.

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Conditions of worth

The feelings an individual experiences when the person, instead of the person's behavior, is evaluated.

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Deficiency orientation

A preoccupation with perceived needs for things a person does not have.

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Growth orientation

Drawing satisfaction from what is available in life, rather that on what's missing.

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Objective personality tests

Personality tests containing direct, unambiguous items relating to the individual being assessed.