Flashcards in Chapter 14, 21, 22 Deck (19):
What are the types of mixtures?
Suspension, thixotropic mixtures, and colloids.
What is a suspension?
A mixture containing particles that settle out if left undisturbed.
What is a thixotropic mixutre?
A solidlike mixture that flows like a liquid when stirred or agitated.
What is a colloid?
A mixture containing small particles (between 1 nm and 1000 nm) that do not settle out. (Example: Milk)
What are the types of solutions?
Unsaturated solutions, saturated solutions, and supersaturated solutions.
What are the factors that affect solvation?
Agitation (stirring/shaking), surface area, and temperature.
What is the solvent and major solutes of air?
The solvent is nitrogen and the major solutes are oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What is solubility?
Solute particles mix randomly among the solvent particles. As more particles are dissolved, the colliding increases and some colliding solute particles rejoin the crystal. The crystallization rate increases as solvation continues while the solvation rate remains constant, might eventually equalize.
How is percent by mass calculated?
Mass of solute/mass of solution X 100
How is molarity calculated?
Moles of solute/liter of solution
What is M?
Molar. A 1M solution is a liter of solution containing one mole of solute.
What is fractional distillation?
It involves boiling the petroleum and collecting components as they condense at different temperatures. Longer chains have a higher boiling point.
What is an alkane and what is its general formula?
A hydrocarbon only containing single bonds between carbons. The general formula is C n H 2n+2 .
What is a cyclic hydrocarbon?
An organic compound that contains a hydrocarbon ring.
What is the general formula of a cycloalkane?
C n H 2n
What is an alkene and what is its general formula?
It is a hydrocarbon that contains one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms. The general formula is C n H 2n.
What is an alkyne and what is its general formula?
It is a hydrocarbon that contains one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms. The general formula is C n H 2n-2
What is the chemical formula of benzene?