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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (75)
1

Components of the first line of defense include all the following except


A. The tough cell sheet of the upper epidermis of the skin

B. Nasal hairs

C. Flushing action of tears and blinking

D. Flushing action of urine

E. Phagocytic white blood cells

E

2

Nonspecific chemical defenses include


A. Lysozyme

B. Lactic acid and electrolytes of sweat

C. Skin's acidic pH and fatty acids

D. Stomach hydrochloric acid

E. All of the choices are correct

E

3

The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan in certain bacterial cell walls is


A. Lactic acid

B. Hydrochloric acid

C. Lysozyme

D. Histamine

E. Bile

C

4

The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the


A. Skin

B. Respiratory tract

C. Digestive tract

D. Urinary tract

E. Eyes

B

5

This body region is protected by fatty acids, acidic pH, lactic acid and a tough cell barrier with its own normal biota


A. Skin

B. Respiratory tract

C. Digestive tract

D. Urinary tract

E. Eyes

A

6

The reticuloendothelial system


A. Is a support network of connective tissue fibers

B. Originates in the cellular basal lamina

C. Provides a passageway within and between tissues and organs

D. Is heavily populated with macrophages

E. All of the choices are correct

E

7

Keratin is an important aspect of non-specific defense because


A. It is toxic to pathogens

B. It creates a physical barrier against pathogens

C. It destroys pathogens

D. It physically restricts pathogens to a specific region

E. None of the choices are correct

B

8

Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except


A. Unbroken skin

B. Mucous

C. Hairs

D. Tears

E. T-cells

E

9

Lysozyme is found in


A. Mucous membranes of the respiratory tract

B. Mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract

C. Salivary secretions

D. Sweat from sweat glands

E. All of the choices are correct

C

10

Zoonotic pathogens


A. Infect only humans

B. Infect only mammals

C. Have a broad host range

D. Have a narrow host range

E. None of the choices are correct

C

11

A properly functioning immune system is responsible for


A. Surveillance of the body

B. Recognition of foreign material

C. Destruction of foreign material

D. Only B & C are correct

E. All of the choices are correct

E

12

Immune system cells differentiate between self and foreign cells by their


A. Cell walls

B. Biota

C. Markers

D. Skin

E. Cell processes

C

13

The term _____ is given to any foreign substance that stimulates a specific immune system response.


A. Antibody

B. Allergen

C. Antigen

D. Foreign body

E. None of the choices are correct

C

14

The main function of the reticuloendothelial system is to provide


A. Surveillance cells

B. A connection between tissues and organs

C. Filtration of extracellular fluid

D. Filtration of blood

E. All of the choices are correct

B

15

Which of the following fluid compartments is not a partner in immune function?


A. Blood stream

B. Extracellular fluid

C. Lymphatic system

D. Intracellular fluid

E. Reticuloendothelial system

D

16

Plasma


A. Is the liquid portion of blood in which blood cells are suspended

B. Is mostly water

C. Contains albumin and globulins

D. Contains fibrinogen

E. All of the choices are correct

E

17

Which of the following is incorrect about blood cells?


A. After birth produced in red bone marrow sites

B. Develop from undifferentiated stem cells

C. Include mast cells

D. Include leukocytes that are either granulocytes or agranulocytes

E. Include erythrocytes that, when mature, lose their nuclei

C

18

The blood cells that function in allergic reactions and inflammation, contain peroxidase and lysozyme and particularly target parasitic worms and fungi are


A. Basophils

B. Eosinophils

C. Neutrophils

D. Monocytes

E. Lymphocytes

B

19

The least numerous of all white blood cells that release histamine during inflammation and allergic reactions are


A. Basophils

B. Eosinophils

C. Neutrophils

D. Monocytes

E. Lymphocytes

A

20

Which white blood cells comprise 20% to 30% of the circulating WBC's and are the cells that function in the body's immune system?


A. Basophils

B. Eosinophils

C. Neutrophils

D. Monocytes

E. Lymphocytes

E

21

The most numerous WBC's, that have multi-lobed nuclei and are very phagocytic are


A. Basophils

B. Eosinophils

C. Neutrophils

D. Monocytes

E. Lymphocytes

C

22

Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?


A. Basophils

B. Eosinophils

C. Neutrophils

D. Monocytes

E. Lymphocytes

D

23

All of the following pertain to platelets except


A. Contain hemoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

B. They function primarily in hemostasis

C. Originate from giant multinucleate cells called megakaryocytes

D. Function in blood clotting and inflammation

E. They are not whole cells but are pieces of cells

A

24

Hematopoiesis is the


A. Loss of blood due to hemorrhaging

B. Production of only red blood cells

C. Production of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets

D. Plugging of broken vessels to stop bleeding

E. Migration of white blood cells from the blood out to the tissues

C

25

Plasma cells


A. Function in cell-mediated immunity

B. Are derived from T-lymphocytes

C. Function in blood clotting

D. Produce and secrete antibodies

E. All of the choices are correct

D

26

Which type of white blood cells are particularly attracted to sites of parasitic worm infections?


A. Monocytes

B. Eosinophils

C. Basophils

D. Neutrophils

E. Lymphocytes

B

27

Each of the following are granulocytes except


A. Neutrophils

B. Eosinophils

C. Lymphocytes

D. Basophils

E. All of the choices are granulocytes

C

28

The granules of neutrophils contain


A. Antibodies

B. Antigens

C. Digestive enzymes

D. Histamine

E. Peroxidase

C

29

The granules of eosinophils contain


A. Antibodies

B. Antigens

C. Serotonin

D. Histamine

E. Peroxidase

E

30

The granules of basophils contain


A. Antibodies

B. Antigens

C. Digestive enzymes

D. Histamine

E. Lysozyme

D

31

Place the following in order of greatest to least phagocytic activity: neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages


A. Neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages

B. Neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils

C. Eosinophils, macrophages, neutrophils

D. Macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils

E. Macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils

D

32

Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are called _____ because they have prominent cytoplasmic inclusions that, in a stained blood smear, appear with identifying, characteristic colors.


A. Leukocytes

B. Granulocytes

C. Agranulocytes

D. Monocytes

E. None of the choices are correct

B

33

_____ function in humoral immunity, while _____ function in cell-mediated immunity.


A. B cells, T cells

B. T cells, B cells

C. Monocytes, Basophils

D. Basophils, T cells

E. B cells, neutrophils

A

34

When monocytes migrate from the blood out to the tissues they are transformed by inflammatory mediators to develop into


A. Primary phagocytes

B. Neutrophils

C. Killer T cells

D. Cytotoxic T cells

E. Macrophages

E

35

A type of monocyte that has long, thin processes to trap pathogens are


A. Dendritic cells

B. Eosinophils

C. Macrophages

D. Platelets

E. Mast cells

A

36

Which of the following lymphoid organs or tissues has the immunological function of filtering pathogens from the blood?


A. Lymph nodes

B. Thymus

C. Spleen

D. GALT

E. Tonsils

C

37

What structures are found along lymphatic vessels and are heavily clustered in the armpit, groin and neck?


A. Lymph nodes

B. Thymus

C. Spleen

D. GALT

E. Tonsils

A

38

Which gland shrinks in size during adulthood and has hormones that function in maturation of T-lymphocytes?


A. Lymph nodes

B. Thymus

C. Spleen

D. GALT

E. Tonsils

B

39

The lymphoid tissues of the intestinal tract are collectively referred to as


A. Lymph nodes

B. Thymus

C. Spleen

D. GALT

E. Tonsils

D

40

Diapedesis is the


A. Loss of blood due to hemorrhaging

B. Production of only red blood cells

C. Production of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets

D. Plugging of broken vessels to stop bleeding

E. Migration of white blood cells from the blood out to the tissues

E

41

The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except


A. Redness

B. Warmth

C. Swelling

D. Pain

E. Chills

E

42

All the following are events of early inflammation except


A. Macrophages appear first and begin phagocytosis

B. Chemical mediators and cytokines are released

C. Brief vasoconstriction is followed by vasodilation

D. Exudate and pus can accumulate

E. Capillaries become more permeable resulting in edema

A

43

Which of the following is incorrect about inflammation?


A. Can last hours to years

B. Pyrogens cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability

C. Serotonin causes smooth muscle contraction

D. Fever could be beneficial to inhibiting the pathogen

E. Basophils and mast cells release histamine

B

44

Which of the following is mismatched?


A. Interferon alpha and beta-inhibits viral replication

B. Interleukin-2-stimulate T cell mitosis and B cell antibody production

C. Serotonin-causes smooth muscle contraction

D. Prostaglandins-activate eosinophils and B cells

E. Tumor necrosis factor-increases chemotaxis and phagocytosis

D

45

Histamine, serotonin and bradykinin are all


A. Vasoactive mediators

B. Mediators of B cell activity

C. Mediators of T cell activity

D. Mediators that increase chemotaxis

E. Fever inducers

A

46

Each of the following is involved in the migration of white blood cells except


A. Chemotaxis

B. Diapedesis

C. Motility

D. Vasodilatation

E. Phagocytosis

E

47

The leakage of vascular fluid into tissues is called


A. Chemotaxis

B. Edema

C. Diapedesis

D. Vasoactivity

E. Pus

B

48

Which of the following is mismatched dealing with inflammation?


A. Rubor – redness

B. Calor – warmth

C. Tumor – cancer

D. Dolar – pain

E. None are mismatched

C

49

Which of the following is not a chief function of inflammation?


A. Start tissue repair

B. Destroy microbes

C. Mobilize and attract immune components to injury site

D. Block further invasion

E. To cause a fever

E

50

The circulating substances that affect the hypothalamus and initiate fever are


A. Complement

B. Interferons

C. Leukotrines

D. Pyrogens

E. Lysozymes

D

51

A person will typically experience the sensation of _____ when fever is starting to occur in the body.


A. Heat

B. Pain

C. Chill

D. Sweat

E. All of the choices are correct

C

52

Each of the following are benefits of fever except


A. It reduces the ability of temperature sensitive organisms to multiply

B. It increases the availability of iron

C. It increases phagocytosis

D. It increases metabolism

E. It stimulates hematopoiesis

E

53

Which of the following is not a type of phagocyte?


A. Neutrophils

B. Macrophages

C. Kupffer cells

D. Monocytes

E. Lymphocytes

E

54

Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?


A. Diapedesis

B. Chemotaxis

C. Phagolysosome formation

D. Destruction

E. Ingestion

A

55

What type of molecules act to draw phagocytes to foreign substances?


A. MALTs

B. RES

C. PAMPs

D. BALTs

E. Lysosomes

C

56

Which of the following is a chemical used by phagocytes to destroy ingested foreign substances?


A. Hydrogen peroxide

B. Nitric oxide

C. Lactic acid

D. Superoxide anion

E. All of these are used

E

57

All of the following pertain to interferon except


A. It is a protein

B. Produced by certain white blood cells and tissue cells

C. Includes alpha, beta and gamma types

D. Inhibit viruses, tumors and cancer gene expression

E. Increase capillary permeability and vasodilation

E

58

Which of the following is incorrect about complement?


A. Composed of at least 20 blood proteins

B. Only appear in the blood during a response to a pathogen

C. Act in a cascade reaction

D. Involves a classical pathway

E. Involves an alternate pathway

B

59

The membrane attack stage of the complement cascade involves


A. Initiation of the cascade

B. Production of inflammatory cytokines

C. A ring-shaped protein that digests holes in bacterial cell membranes and virus envelopes

D. Cleaving of C3 to yield C3a and C3b

E. C1q binds to surface receptors on a membrane

C

60

The _____ system of blood proteins act to lyse foreign cells and viruses.


A. Humoral immunity

B. Cell mediated

C. Complement

D. Lymphoid

E. None of the choices are correct

C

61

What is the first step in the major events of the inflammation process?


A. Formation of pus and edema

B. Scar formation and/or resolution

C. Vascular reactions

D. Injury and mast cells releasing chemical mediators

D

62

During what process are hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide produced to destroy bacteria and inhibit viral replication?


A. Inflammation

B. Phagocytosis

C. Interferon production

D. Complement production

B

63

Which protein can be produced by a virus-infected cell, in order to communicate with other cells the need to produce antiviral proteins?


A. Complement

B. Albumin

C. Interferon

D. Histamine

C

64

T or F
Genetic differences among species and within a species can convey genetic immunity to certain diseases

T

65

T or F
Plasma is also called lymph

F

66

T or F
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes mature in the thymus gland

F

67

T or F
Monocytes and lymphocytes are agranular leukocytes

F

68

T or F
During inflammation, a high neutrophil count is a common sign of bacterial infection.

T

69

T or F
Inflammatory responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense

F

70

T or F
Endotoxin is an exogenous pyrogen

T

71

T or F
A low to moderate fever in an otherwise healthy person should be treated immediately with antipyretic drugs

F

72

T or F
During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed

F

73

T or F
The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection

F

74

T or F
Complement proteins are produced by the spleen.

F

75

T or F
Certain complement components stimulate inflammation and phagocytosis

T