Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (124):
0

antagonistic

acting in opposition
mutually opposing

1

electrolyte

mineral salt (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carries an electrical charge in solution

2

glucagon

hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that stimulates the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch from sugar) to glucose

3

glucose

simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion

4

insulin

hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that allows body cells to use glucose for energy or store it in the liver as glycogen

5

sympathomimetic

agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system

6

adren/o, adrenal/o

adrenal glands

7

calc/o

calcium

8

crin/o

secrete

9

gluc/o, glyc/o, glycos/o

sugar
sweetness

10

home/o

same
alike

11

kal/i

potassium (an electrolyte)

12

pancreat/o

pancreas

13

parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands

14

thym/o

thymus gland

15

thyr/o, throid/o

thyroid gland

16

toxic/o

poison

17

-crine

secrete

18

-dipsia

thirst

19

-gen

forming
producing
origin

20

-toxic

pertaining to poison

21

-uria

urine

22

eu-

good
normal

23

exo-

outside
outward

24

hyper-

excessive
above normal

25

hypo-

under
below

26

poly-

many
much

27

acromegaly

rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH-secreting pituitary tumor (adenoma) that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal

28

diuresis

increased formation and secretion of urine

29

glycosuria

abnormal amount of glucose in the urine

30

Graves disease

Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)

31

hirsutism

excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women

32

hypercalcemia

condition in which the calcium level in the blood is higher than normal

33

hyperkalemia

condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal

34

hypervolemia

abnormal increase in the volume of blood plasma (liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid) in the body

35

hyponatremia

lower than normal level of sodium in the blood

36

insulinoma

tumor of the islets of langerhans of the pancreas

37

obesity

excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight

38

morbid obesity

body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight

39

panhypopituitarism

total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity

40

pheochromocytoma

small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla causing elevated heart rate and blood

41

thyroid storm

crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of an increased amount of thyroid hormone

42

virilism

Masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman

43

exophthalmometry

measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball as seen in Graves Disease

44

transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumor through an incision in the sphenoid sinus without disturbing brain tissue

45

parathyroidectomy

excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands usually to control hyperparathyroidism

46

thymectomy

excision of the thymus gland

47

thyroidectomy

excision of the entire thyroid gland, a part of it or a lobe

48

fasting blood sugar test

test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following a fast of at least 8 hours

49

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

Screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken afterward at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood

50

insulin tolerance test (ITT)

diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity

51

thyroid function test (TFT)

test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function

52

total calcium test

test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders

53

radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)

administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) in pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up iodine from the blood

54

thyroid scan

images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine

55

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic stimulating hormone

56

ADH

antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

57

DI

diabetes insipidus
diagnostic imaging

58

DKA

diabetic ketoacidosis

59

DM

diabetes mellitus

60

FBS

fasting blood sugar

61

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

62

GH

growth hormone

63

GTT

glucose tolerance test

64

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

65

K

potassium (an electrolyte)

66

LH

luteinzing hormone

67

NPH

neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)

68

PRL

prolactin

69

PGH

pituitary growth hormone

70

PTH

parathyroid hormone

71

RAI

radioactive iodine

72

RAIU

radioactive iodine uptake

73

T3

triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone)

74

T4

throxine (thyroid hormone)

75

TFT

thyroid function test

76

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

77

thymoma

tumor of the thymus

78

glycolysis

destruction of glucose (by enzymes)

79

polydypsia

much thirst

80

pancreatolithectomy

removal of a stone from the pancrease

81

endocrine

(glands that) secrete within (the blood)

82

adipsia

without thirst

83

exocrine

(glands that) secrete within (the blood)

84

hyperglycemia

blood condition of excessive sugar

85

thymolysis

destruction of the thymus

86

adrenalitis

inflammation of the adrenal glands

87

hypocalcemia

blood condition of below (normal) calcium

88

hyperkalemia

blood condition of excessive potassium (an electrolyte)

89

acromegaly

enlargement of the extremities

90

pancreatography

process of recording (x-ray) the pancreas

91

hypoglycemia

blood condition of deficiency of glucose

92

glycogenesis

formation of glycogen

93

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

94

pancreatolysis

destruction of the pancreas

95

pancreatopathy

disease of the pancreas

96

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid gland

97

thyromegaly

enlargement of the thyroid

98

parathyroidectomy

excision of a parathyroid gland

99

adrenalectomy

removal of the adrenal gland

100

myxedema

hypothyroidism acquired in adulthood

101

diuresis

increased excretion of urine

102

hirsutism

excessive growth of hair in unusual places, especially in women

103

cretinism

hypothyroidism that appears as a congenital condition and is commonly associated with other endocrine abnormalities

104

thyroid storm

crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism

105

addison disease

caused by deficiency in the secretion of adrenocortical hormones

106

exophthalmic goiter

characterized by protrusion of the eyeballs
increased heart action
enlargement of the thyroid gland
weight loss
nervousness

107

type 1 diabetes

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
occurs most commonly in children and adolescents

108

hyponatremia

decreased concentration of sodium in the blood

109

glycosuria

abnormal presence of glucose in the urine

110

type 2 diabetes

non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
occurs later in life

111

FBS

measures circulating glucose level after 12-hour fast

112

RAIU

measures thyroid function and monitors how quickly ingested iodine is taken into the thyroid gland

113

corticosteroids

replacement hormones for adrenal insufficiency

114

growth hormone

increases skeletal growth in children

115

T4

thyroxine

116

oral antidiabetics

used to treat type 2 diabetes

117

GTT

test commonly used to help diagnose diabetes or other disorders that affect carbohydrate metabolism

118

antithyroids

used to treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone

119

hypophysectomy

partial or compete excision of the pituitary

120

T3

triiodothyronine

121

Humulin

trade name for all human genetically produced insulins

122

glycosuria

sugar in the urine

123

hypopnea

shallow breathing