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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (30):
1

Order

In classification the taxonomic category above family

2

Allopatric Speciation

The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population becoming isolated by a geographic barrier.

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convergent evolution

adaptive change resulting in nonhomologous (analogous) similarities among organisms. Species from different evolutionary lineages come to resemble each other as a result of living in very similar environments

4

domain

a taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

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evo-devo

evolutionary developmental biology, which studies the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms

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family

in classification, the taxonomic category above genus

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genus

in classification, the taxonomic category above species, the first part of a species binomial. For example: Homo

8

geologic time scale

a time scale established by geologists that reflects a consistent sequence of geologic periods, grouped into four divisions: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

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kingdom

in classification, the broad taxonomic category above phylum

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macroevolution

evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing the origin of new species, the origin of new species, the origin of evolutionary novelty, diversification, and mass extinction

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Analogy

The similarity of structure between two species that are not closely related, attributed to convergent evolution.

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Binomial

A two-part latinized name of a species.

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Biological Species Concept

The definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

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Clade

An ancestral species and all its descendants-a distinctive branch in the tree of life.

15

Cladistics

The study of evolutionary history; specifically, the scientific search for clades, taxonomic groups composed of an ancestral species and all its descendants.

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Class

In classification, the taxonomic category above order.

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Reproductive Barrier

Anything that prevents individuals of closely related species from interbreeding, even when populations of the two species live together.

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Speciation

The formation of new species.

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species

a group of populations whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed

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sympatric speciation

the formation of a new species as a result of a change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed populations. Sympatric speciation occurs without a geographic barrier

21

Pedomorphosis

The retention in adult features that were juvenile in ancestral species.

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Phylum

In classification, the taxonomic category above the class and below the kingdom. Members of a phylum have a similar general body plan.

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Phylogenetic trees

A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships between organisms.

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Post zygotic Barrier

A reproductive barrier that operates if interspecies mating occurs and forms hybrid zygotes.

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Pre zygotic Barrier

A reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization of eggs if members of a different species attempt to mate

26

Punctuated Equilibria

The term describing long periods of little change, or equilibrium punctuated by abrupt species of speciation

27

Radiometric Dating

a method of dating geological or archeological specimens by determining the relative proportions of particular radioactive isotopes present in a sample.

28

Systematics

the branch of biology that deals with classification and nomenclature; taxonomy.

29

Taxonomy

the branch of biology concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics.

30

Three-Domain System

biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.