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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (40):

resident alien (2)

- person from foreign nation
- permanent residence in US


nonresident alien (2)

- person from foreign nation
- staying in US for a short time


enemy alien

person from a nation that is at war with the US



people fleeing to escape persecution or danger


illegal alien

person who comes into US illegally


aliens' rights (5)

- freedom of speech
- own a house
- attend public schools
- carry on businesses
- use public facilities


aliens' obligations (3)

- pay taxes
- obey the law
- be loyal to US government


Johnson Act (2)

- lowered number of immigrants allowed into US to less than 165,000 per year
- favored people from northern and western Europe


Immigration Reform Act of 1965 (5 *in order of importance)

- people whose skills would be advantageous to US
- unmarried adult children of US citizens
- husbands, wives, and unmarried children of permanent residents
- professionals such as doctors and lawyers
- refugees


Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (4)

- aliens who entered the US before Jan, 1, 1982, and have continuously resided in the US can apply for amnesty, or general pardon gov't offers to illegal aliens
- after 5 yrs in US, can apply for citizenship
- employers can't hire illegal aliens
- employers must ask applicants for documents to prove that they are either citizens or aliens qualified to work in US


Immigration Act of 1990 (3)

- established a limit from any single country to no more than 7% of the annual visas
- encouraged immigration of workers with "extraordinary abilities"
- established a category for special immigrants


Dred Scott v. Sandford (2)

- free or enslaved blacks that were not citizens when the US Constitution was adopted, then they couldn't claim citizenship
- Congress can't forbid slavery in US territories


14th Amendment

everyone born in the US is a citizen


Law of Soil

jus soli, law of the soil, grants US citizenship to anyone born in US or US territories


Law of Blood

jus sanguinus, law of blood, a child born to parents who are citizens, becomes a citizen at birth


Qualifications for Citizenship (5)

- entered US legally
- good moral character
- support principles of American gov't
- prove they can read, write, and speak English
- have basic knowledge of American history and gov't



giving up one's citizenship by leaving one's native country to live in a foreign country



loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during naturalization process


Responsibilities of Citizens (3)

- need to know about rights and laws
- vote
- participating in election process


the exclusionary rule

any illegally obtained evidence can't be used in court


CA v. Acevedo

Acevedo pleaded guilty but appealed that court's refusal to exclude the marijuana as evidence


Gideon v. Wainwright (2)

- Gideon, because he was poor, requested a court appointed attorney, but court denied his request
- court overruled Betts decision


Escobedo v. Illinois

ruled the Escobedo's 5th Amendment right to remain silent and his 6th amendment right o tan attorney had been violated


Miranda v. Arizona

court ruled that the 5th amendment's protection against self-incrimination requires that suspects be clearly informed of their rights before police question them


double jeopardy

a person can't be tried for the same crime twice


8th amendment

forbids cruel and unusual punishments


the Rational Basis Test

the court will uphold a state law when the state can show good reason to justify the classification


fundamental rights

rights that go to the heart of American system or are indispensable in a just system


Jim Crow laws

required racial segregation in schools, public transportation and hotels


Plessy v. Ferguson

separate but equal doctrine


Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

overruled spate but equal doctrine


affirmative action

gov't policies that directly or indirectly give a preference to minorities, women, or the physically challenged in order to make up for past discrimination


Prohibited actions resulting from Supreme Court decisions that bar distinction based on gender (8)

- no different ages to become legal adults
- no different ages to drink alcohol
- can't exclude women from juries
- can't require women to take maternity leave
- girls can't be kept off Little League teams
- private clubs can't exclude women
- must pay equal monthly retirement benefits
- can't bar women from military colleges


Permitted actions resulting from Supreme Court decisions that bar distinction based on gender (4)

- all boy and all girls schools
- give widows a property tax exemption not given to widowers
- prohibits women from working at an all male prison
- hospital can bar fathers from delivery room


Civil Rights Act of 1964

banned job discrimination based on gender


Equal Employment Opportunity Act

prohibited gender discrimination within the job force


Omnibus Education Act of 1972

allowed equal access to sports for boys and girls


Sunshine Act

many gov't meeting open to the public


4th Amendment

prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and requires any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause


5th Amendment

no person be required to testify against himself or herself in a criminal case and that no person be subjected to a second trial for an offense for which he or she has been duly tried previously